SM48 / TEM2
ALCO RSD1 at Orange Empire Railway Museum,
First Soviet clone of the RSD1: TE1-20-195, built in Kharkov in 1949. Moscow Railway Museum, November 19, 2015.
TEM1-1690, photographed somewhere in Russia on April 3, 2003. Photo by Dmitriy Makarov (from my collection).
TEM2-054, from the SZD fleet. Photo from LOZD vol.2.
SM48-116, PKP, photographed in Konstancin-Jeziorna near Warsaw, March 2, 2003.
TEM2-151, again from Ostrołęka power plant, in new livery; October 11, 2002…
…and the same locomotive, photographed in Ostrołęka on August 23, 2003.
TEM2 side drawing by Z. Kołoda from KMD 1/2005.
This TEM2-241 belongs to CTL Maczki-Bór rail transport company and was photographed near Sosnowiec on October 3, 2003.
PKP’s SM48-119, Warszawa Odolany depot, March 14, 2004.
This TEM2-149 is used by Kotlarnia sand mine; photo taken on October 9, 2004 in Pyskowice.
Another picture of this machine, taken in Kotlarnia on October 4, 2006. The steamer on left is Ty51-138.
This TEM2-224, operated by Coaltran, a PCC Rail subsidiary, was photographed in Konstancin Jeziorna near Warsaw on March 1, 2006. More pictures of TEM2s from the PCC Rail fleet (from my collection) can be found here.
Another TEM2 from Coaltran: TEM2-231, photographed at the same location on April 17, 2006, with 3E-44 in the background.
Another picture of TEM2-224, taken near the Żerań power plant in Warsaw on September 12, 2007.
TEM2-104, photographed at the same location on June 27, 2008. This machine is probably also from Coaltran, but displays old (and faded) PKP-type livery.
SM48-286, Orlen KolTrans; this locomotive was photographed in Bolesławiec on April 7, 2006.
Large fleet of TEM2s is operated by Pol-Miedź Trans; some of them can be seen here.
Broad-gauge SM48-073, operated by LHS and photographed at the Zamość Bortatycze depot on April 22, 2006.
SM48-079, photographed at the Małaszewicze depot on July 2, 2006; bucolic appearance is slightly confusing, as Małaszewicze is one of the largest transfer stations in Poland.
Second machine photographed at the same depot on the same occasion: SM48-089; this machine has no PKP logo and, despite low service number, represents the later variant with more angular body.
This TEM2-017, photographed near the Zduńska Wola Karsznice station on July 26, 2006, has no visible operator’s logo. Most probably it is the property of Tarnów-based Koltar company.
TEM2-001 is currently owned by the Kotlarnia sand mine; photo taken at the company’s premises on October 4, 2006. This is the first TEM2 supplied to a Polish operator (s/n 6740/1974).
This SM48-310 is operated by Lotos Kolej; photo taken in Zduńska Wola Karsznice on December 16, 2006.
SM48-310 again, but in new livery: August 30, 2010.
Another SM48 from the Lotos Kolej fleet: SM48-068, photographed on March 31, 2007, at the same location.
Almost three years later: SM48-068 in new livery. Zduńska Wola Karsznice, February 19, 2010.
More pictures from this location: SM48-264, photographed on April 26, 2007.
SM48-264 again, this time posing with the 181 060-5; Zduńska Wola Karsznice, December 18, 2007.
SM48-264 and the same location once again, this time displaying new Lotos Kolej livery: September 23, 2009.
SM48-279, also from the Lotos Kolej fleet, photographed at the same location on March 16, 2008.
SM48-112, photographed at the Warszawa Zachodnia station on March 27, 2008.
SM48-077, PKP, photographed at the Przemyśl station on May 22, 2008.
Springtime switcher: SM48-003, maneuvering near Przemyśl on May 23, 2008.
Two more pictures, taken in Żurawica on the same day: SM48-107...
...and SM48-088, both from PKP.
Two TEM2s from the PCC Rail Coaltran fleet, photographed in Konstancin Jeziorna on June 15, 2008: TEM2-030...
...and TEM2-195; both display new carrier’s logo. The locomotive in the background is M62-0837 from the same company.
TEM2-144, photographed at the same location on September 8, 2010. Despite PCC Rail being taken over by DB Schenker, this locomotive still carries old livery.
SM48-087, PKP, photographed near the Warszawa Okęcie station on July 31, 2008.
TEM2-147, Konin lignite mine; photo taken at the mining railway depot, Kleczew, on September 16, 2008.
TEM2s, operated by Lotos Kolej, have either PKP-style or ‘industrial’ designations; this TEM2-099 was photographed at the Zduńska Wola Karsznice station on February 4, 2009.
TEM2-044, PTKiGK Rybnik, photographed at the PCC Rail depot in Sosnowiec Jęzor on March 5, 2009.
Three TEM2s from the PCC Rail fleet, photographed during my second visit to the Sosnowiec Jęzor depot on April 14, 2009: TEM2-027...
TEM2-302, Lotos Kolej, Zduńska Wola Karsznice, June 1, 2009. In 2013 this locomotive was sold to Estonian Skinest Rail, overhauled and converted to 1524 mm track. Two years later it was loaned to Russian Severstal company.
Two TEM2s, photographed near the Warszawa Żerań station on July 3, 2009: TEM2-152…
… and TEM2-278; both are from the PCC Rail Coaltran fleet. The latter was initially ordered by PKP as SM48-092, but sold to PMPPW (‘sand railways’) soon after delivery, its number being later used again.
Two more pictures from this location and two frequent visitors to Warsaw: TEM2-278 again…
…and TEM2-195. Both photos were taken on September 21, 2010, when PCC Rail had already been absorbed by DB Schenker.
TEM2-175, PTKiGK Zabrze, photographed at the Jaworzyna Śląska station on July 8, 2009.
TEM2-114, Orlen KolTrans, photographed near Warszawa Okęcie station on September 4, 2009.
TEM2-291 from Siarkopol company, photographed near the Osiek sulfur mine on September 6, 2009.
Second-hand ex-Ukrainian TEM2-5455, still in original livery; photo taken in Zduńska Wola Karsznice on September 23, 2009.
Another picture of this locomotive, taken on August 30, 2010. Its owner at that time was Hagans Logistics; it was sold to Majkoltrans in February 20111.
TEM2-025 from the PCC Rail fleet, photographed near the Sosnowiec Jęzor depot on November 27, 2009.
Something more exotic: Cuban 71021 (old version)…
…and 71078 (new version). All Cuban TEM2s have five-digit service numbers. Both photos by Chris West (many thanks for permission!).
TEM2-004 and TEM2-278 double-heading a heavy draft; Turoszów station, July 12, 2010. Two liveries, two companies, one train. And TEM2-278 is the second locomotive bearing the same number (see above).
TEM2-075 (BMZ 075/1978), photographed at the Kłodawa Salt Mine railway depot on September 20, 2010.
TEM2-296, originally purchased for a sulfur mine, is currently owned by Hagans Logistic. Zduńska Wola Karsznice, May 13, 2011.
Another locomotive from Hagans Logistic: TEM2-286, photographed at the same location on June 17, 2011.
TEM2-196 in new (and nice) CTL Logistics livery, photographed in Koluszki on September 21, 2011.
TEM2-024, Orlen KolTrans, double-heading a heavy draft together with an EU07. Długołęka, December 21, 2011.
TEM2-031 from the DB Schenker Rail Polska fleet, photographed at the Sosnowiec Jęzor depot on April 10, 2012.
This TEM2-002 is operated by Tarnów-based Koltar company and was photographed at the Koluszki station on June 27, 2012. Note modified headlights.
Koluszki again: TEM2-037, CTL Logistics, September 12, 2012.
TEM2-208, Kuźnica Warężyńska sand mine, photographed at the Andaluzja colliery on May 20, 2002. Photo from my collection.
TEM2-243, photographed on the same occasion (overhaul?).
TEM2-186 from the PTKiGK Zabrze fleet, photographed in Gliwice on February 25, 2004. Photo from my collection.
This picture of the TEM2-163 was taken in April 2003 in Rybnik Boguszowice by A.Palla (photo from my collection).
TEM2-087, Sosnowiec Maczki, May 22, 2002. Photo from my collection.
SM48-007, photographed on June 8, 1990, possibly in Zamość. This locomotive is still in service with PKP Cargo. Photo by Miłosz Zaborski (from my collection).
TEM2-080, somewhere in Silesia, June 14, 2002. Photo from my collection.
PKP again: SM48-112, Warszawa Odolany depot, April 21, 2000. Photo by Miłosz Zaborski (from my collection).
Back to Koluszki – seems there is always a TEM2 there. TEM2-128 from the CTL Rail fleet, August 19, 2013.
Another locomotive from sand railways: TEM2-234, Kotlarnia, March 30, 1992. Photo by B. Jędrzejewski (from my collection).
TEM2-199, operated by Orlen KolTrans, Płock Trzepowo, May 26, 2001. Photo by Sławomir Kołtuński (from my collection).
TEM2-101, PCC Rail, Szczakowa, October 14, 2003. Photo by Zenon Maternowski (from my collection).
Another picture by the same author: SM48-097, Bydgoszcz Główna station, July 28, 2003…
…and yet another: TEM2-025, Szczakowa sand mine, Kraków Prokocim, May 31, 2003.
TEM2-091 from the same operator’s fleet, photographed somewhere in Silesia on October 30, 1997. Photo from my collection.
Bydgoszcz again: SM48-109, probably just after a major overhaul at PESA, March 12, 2002. Photo by Marek Kiełbasiński (from my collection).
Typical scene from early 1990s: SM48-128, photographed near border crossing at Medyka, and ‘tourists’ with their baggage; September 7, 1991 (photo from my collection).
TEM2-119 and TEM2-228, photographed in Brodnica on September 30, 1999. Photo by Sławomir Kołtuński (from my collection).
TEM2-128, CTL Rail, Koluszki, October 4, 2013.
TEM2-230 from the DB Schenker Rail Polska fleet; Sosnowiec Jęzor, March 3, 2014.
The same operator, location and date: TEM2-174, in typical DB red livery.
SM48-229, CTL Chemkol, Kędzierzyn Koźle, March 28, 2014. In many sources this locomotive is listed as TEM2-229, which is more typical for a private operator.
The same refers to the SM48-014, operated by CTL Logistics (the same location and date). In fact, PKP Cargo fleet also includes a SM48-014!
SM48-116, Bydgoszcz Główna station, August 26, 1999. Photo by Sławomir Kołtuński (from my collection).
TEM2-278, PCC Rail, switching at the Żerań power plant siding, May 8, 2004. Photo by Bartek Łoziński (from my collection).
TEM2-282 from the same operator, photographed in Nowy Sącz, date unknown. Photo by Marcin Lisowski (from my collection).
TEM2-307, PTKiGK Rybnik, Warszawa Praga station, April 17, 2004. Photo from my collection.
TEM2-265 from the Orion Kolej fleet, photographed near Warszawa Anin station on August 7, 2014.
SM48-079, PKP, photographed in Łuków on October 31, 2001 (a very nice day!). Photo by M. Plewka (from my collection).
Another locomotive from the PKP fleet: SM48-058, photographed at the Białystok depot on April 18, 2003. Photo by B. Łoziński (from my collection).
The same author and PCC Rail Coaltran again: TEM2-144, Warszawa Praga station, July 1, 2004. Photo from my collection.
TEM2-110 is used by the Rybnik power plant and was photographed at the company’s depot on September 8, 2000. Photo from my collection.
TEM2-087, operated by CTL, was photographed in Libiąż on July 2, 2003. Photo by Bartek Łoziński (from my collection).
Another photo from my collection: TEM7506 (probably Russian), location and date unknown.
Two pictures taken at the Warszawa Okęcie siding on October 9, 2014: TEM2-102, DB Schenker Rail Polska, but still in old PTK livery…
…and TEM2-119, Orlen KolTrans.
SM48-88, CTL Logistics, Kobylany (near border crossing to Belarus), July 5, 2015. PKP fleet includes SM48-088, which is a different engine!
TEM2-030, currently operated by Expleo, photographed in Siemianówka on October 24, 2015. More pictures from this location, a transfer station close to the Belorussian border, can be seen here.
TEM2-1592, built in Bryansk in 1973, has already earned itself a heritage status: Moscow Railway Museum, November 19, 2015.
TEM2-094, originally delivered to PTKiGK Rybnik, has changed hands several times and is currently owned by Kolej Bałtycka; Zduńska Wola Karsznice, May 21, 2016.
SM48-084 from the PKP Cargo fleet, photographed in Dorohusk on October 2, 2016.
Three TEM2s, photographed at the Sosnowiec Jęzor depot on March 9, 2017: TEM2-144 (DB Cargo Polska)…
… TEM2-256 (the same operator)…
… and TEM2-148 (CTL Logistics).
TEM2-162 owned by ZIK engineering company, Sandomierz, November 5, 2017.
Another locomotive operated by ZIK: TEM2-251, Sandomierz, February 25, 2018.
TEM2-109 was operated for a long time by Kozienice power plant; in 2017 it was sold to PRT Torrems track repair and maintenance company. Puławy Azoty station, October 3, 2018.
Two pictures taken by Mariusz Niżyniec at the Jankowice colliery: TEM2-044, July 20, 2008…
… and TEM2-281, October 23, 2011. Both were then operated by PTKiGK Rybnik. From my collection.
TEM2-051, Rail Polska, photographed in Sosnowiec Jęzor on September 16, 2021.
In July 1958 prototype TEM1 diesel switcher was outshopped from Bryansk Engineering Works (BMZ); in Soviet designation system T stood for diesel, E for electric transmission and M for switcher. Origins of this locomotive can be traced back to the RS1 four-axle (Bo’Bo’) diesel, developed by ALCO in the USA. Its axle load of almost 30 tonnes conformed with American mainline standards, but nonetheless was comparatively high. Therefore during the war, in order to provide a locomotive suitable for Lend-Lease deliveries to other countries, a six-axle version was designed. Contrary to the locomotive developed in parallel along the same lines by Baldwin, whose six-axle variant was in fact a new design, ALCO machine, designated RSD1, was a RS1 married to new three-axle trucks. During WWII RSD1 was built in rather small numbers (probably not more than 150 units).
Soviet railway specialists, involved in procurement of class Ea steam engines in the USA, suggested that American six-axle diesels might be well suited for mainline service in the USSR. Both Baldwin and ALCO locomotives, obtained via Lend-Lease, were considered. RSD1 was the first to arrive, although deliveries started when war in Europe was ending. In all, 68 machines of this type were supplied to the USSR in 1945 (of 70 dispatched; two were lost en route with sunken ships). They were classed Da20, or Дa20 in Russian script, which was shortened to Da in 1947. Baldwin locomotive (designated Db) was initially plagued by prime mover failures and deliveries began only in 1946. History has it that, when in 1945 a Soviet government train was hauled to Potsdam by a RSD1, Stalin was delighted by its faultless performance. No wonder, thus, that in 1947 its copy, was put into production at the Kharkov works as TE1-20 (TЭ1-20 in Russian script). It was soon shortened to TE1. Db and indigenous T17 (designed in 1938, but later shelved) were rejected, although both were better suited to mainline service. In all, 300 TE1s were built until 1950, including a variant for extremely cold climate, designated TE5. In the mainline service they were soon replaced by more powerful types, but TEM1 switcher, developed from them, was much more prolific: when its production was halted in 1968, 1946 machines had been built. In 1959, however, it was decided that more powerful switchers were also necessary, and Bryansk design team developed the TEM2; this designation indicates that electric transmission was retained, although it had been suggested that for such machines hydraulic transmission was more appropriate. Between 1960 and 1963 only a few examples were built, large-scale production starting only in 1968. In 1969, Voroshilovgrad (now Lugansk) factory also commenced production of this type, eventually contributing 1354 examples to the total output.
2D50 six-cylinder in-line diesel (developed – some say directly copied – from McIntosh & Seymour type 539 used in RS1 and RSD1) of the TEM1 was replaced by its development PD1 with 20 percent more power. Both were built by Penza diesel engine factory. In 1968 – soon after the type had been ordered in quantity – it was replaced by the PD1M with the same rating, but longer service life and slightly lower fuel consumption. Economy, however, has never been the strong side of this locomotive, at least by current Western standards. Other modifications were also progressively introduced during the production run, which continued until 2000. Principal variants were TEM2 (1960 – 1984, 6219 examples), TEM2U (1978 – 1989, 1390 examples, with more angular body and lower roof-mounted spark arrester) and TEM2UM (1989 – 2000, 1078 examples, new 1-PD4A diesel-generator unit, a de-rated variant of 1-PD4). TEM2A was a version of TEM2 or TEM2U that facilitated easy conversion to 1435 mm track, while TEM2AM was an equivalent variant of TEM2UM – production figures for Soviet/Russian operators are included in the above numbers. TEM2M, which appeared in 1974, featured new 6D49 eight-cylinder diesel engine (the same rating – later used in the TEM5) and was built until 1988 in relatively small numbers (286 examples).
Experimental variants included TEM2US with electromagnetic device for adhesion improvement (1978, one), TEM2T (1983 and 1985, two) and TEM2UMT (1990 – 1991, five) with electrodynamic braking, TEM2UM (1988, one) with 1-PD4 diesel-generator unit rated at 1350 hp, which failed to reach production status, and TEM2UMM with microprocessor control systems (1992, one). This gives a total of 8983 examples (the above statistics have been based on data provided by Vyacheslav Sokolov, available at http://scado.narod.ru) built for Soviet and Russian operators. Since 2002, 125 TEM2s and TEM2Us were modernized to the TEM2K (or TEM2-K) standard, with 1-PD4D diesel engines, rheostatic braking and many minor refinements; TEM2AK is the equivalent modernization of TEM2A (31 examples). TEM2M of 2005 is a modernized variant developed by the Chelyabinsk works, of which little is known. Currently OAO Kolomenskiy Zavod company offers 3-3DG power-packs which, compared to PG1M, are lighter and offer specific fuel consumption reduction by about 5%.
These locomotives were also built for export. TEM4 was a tropicalized version for Cuba, with the de-rated 1000 hp PD1T (T for tropical) engine; 44 examples were built between 1964 and 1966 in Bryansk, of which four remained in the USSR. Later variants for Cuba were identified by the suffix ‘K’, but unfortunately I have no information on their production. Export to European countries included standard Soviet versions suited for the 1435 mm track, i.e. TEM2A and TEM2AM.
Mention has also to be made of further development of the basic design, which indeed proved extremely prolific. Thus, TEM3 (1979 – 1992, 29 examples) featured different trucks, while TEM5 (1969 – 1974, 17 examples) was an even more extensive redesign, with the 6D49 diesel engine – some of its features were used in the TEM2M, which in fact had been initially designed TEM5M. TEM15 (1987 – 1995, 194 examples), developed from TEM2M, was intended for Cuba, but most went to Soviet and later Russian industrial establishments. Further development led to TEM16, TEM17 and TEM18: the latter, with the 1-PD4A diesel engine, finally went into series production in 1992 and eventually replaced its older kinsmen, over 1700 being built until mid-2017. At the time of writing (January 2018) TEM18 still remains in production; a single example saw some service in Poland with LHS (broad-gauge line, a PKP subsidiary).
TEM2s were widely used in the USSR and Russia and still remain in service, as the most numerous heavy diesel switchers in the former Soviet republics. On January 1, 1976, 1501 TEM2s and 215 TEM2As were used by Soviet railways, plus probably many more by various industrial operators. According to KMD, in 1992 there were 3418 examples of all versions in use in former USSR countries. Marco van Uden (www.railfaneurope.net) gives over 3300 locomotives of this type used in former Soviet Republics (Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine), but it is not clear if this number includes those used by industrial operators – most probably not. As figures concerning export are very hard to find, it is virtually impossible to estimate the total output: ‘about 10,000’ sounds reasonable.
First examples of this locomotive in Poland were purchased in 1974 for sand railways: TEM2-001 (6740/1974) entered service on April 1. Supplies to PKP started two years later. In accordance with the system used by PKP, they were designated SM48, but this applied only to those used by the state railways: industrial operators retained the TEM2 code, although it seems that most – if not all – corresponded to the TEM2A variant and ran on the 1435 mm track only. Most locomotives of this type purchased by PKP were intended for heavy freight handling stations along Poland’s eastern border (during the Communist era affectionately referred to as ‘dry ports’), where replacement of elderly Ty23 and Ty2 steam locomotives was urgently needed. In all, PKP acquired 130 machines, all built by Bryansk factory, in two batches. The first one (SM48-001 through SM48-086) was supplied between 1976 and 1978. The second one (SM48-088 through SM48-130) corresponded to the TEM2U variant and was supplied between 1987 and 1989. Of these, 25 served on the LHS broad-gauge line (now a PKP subsidiary), but all had been transferred there from various regional managements. Two of them (SM48-028 and SM48-034) have been scrapped and some others converted to standard gauge – trucks could be easily replaced and some machines underwent such conversions more than once.
Much more TEM2s were supplied to various industrial operators, retaining their original factory designation plus service number. Of these, first 207 examples corresponded to the older TEM2A variant; last of them, TEM2-207, was sold to PKP in 1982 and became SM48-087. Those from TEM2-208 onwards corresponded to the later variant with modified, more angular body. Last of them, TEM2-310, was supplied to Staszic colliery in 1990. This makes a total of 309 machines of this type purchased to industrial operators. Several locomotives earmarked for PKP were eventually supplied directly to industry with changed designations and some numbers did duplicate, which has caused some confusion among railway fans, especially those addicted to statistics. Irrespective of the owner, common nickname of this locomotive is ‘Tamara’, obviously after the original designation.
Despite many diesel locomotives being written off in Poland during the 90s, TEM2 / SM48 class is still in service in quite large number, only few having been withdrawn. According to the rosters given in AL, 118 machines were still in use at the beginning of 2002 with PKP only. Given their comparatively young age, robustness and quite high reliability, they will probably remain in use for a long time. They are well suited for operation in low temperature, even -50°C – no wonder, with their Russian ancestry; however, wide use of asbestos for thermal insulation is certainly a reason for embarrassment and unacceptable by current environmental standards. High fuel and oil consumption is also a problem, but replacement of obsolescent low-speed diesel engines (rated power at 750 rpm) is now considered too costly and thus unjustified. So far, only four of twelve examples operated by Pol-Miedź Trans company (service numbers 033, 035, 181 and 298) were rebuilt. Two were fitted with MTU 12V396TC14 engines rated at 1015 kW with new state-of-the-art control systems; they were delivered in 2003. Two other examples followed in 2004, fitted with MTU 12V 4000 R41 diesels, rated at 1500 kW. These two conversion are known under semi-official designations SM48M and TEM2/15M, respectively. Until now (early 2010) no more conversions have been reported.
In October 2008 a private trading company purchased a second-hand TEM2 (s/n 5455/1977), which had completed a routine overhaul at a repair shop in Poltava, Ukraine. This locomotive was then offered for sale (for 1,350,000 Polish zloty – about 485,000 US dollars at that time); later, still with original service number TEM2-5455 and Ukrainian livery, it was leased to Hagans Logistics and used for switching in Zduńska Wola Karsznice. In early 2011 this locomotive was transferred to Wrocław-based Majkoltrans company. It is not clear if further purchases are planned.
An extensive modernization of this type was proposed by Newag in 2010. This locomotive, with factory designation 15D or 16D (for standard and broad gauge, respectively), is fitted with Caterpillar CAT 3512C diesel engine, AC/DC transmission and completely redesigned body. First example began service tests in mid-2010. 15D/16D is in fact a new design and shall be described under a separate entry.
Main technical data
1) 309 for industry (plus one sold to PKP) and 130 for PKP (some for 1524 mm track). Second-hand locomotives not included.
2) In early examples, PD1 engine with the same basic data; in TEM2M, 6D49 eight-cylinder diesel engine, bore x stroke: 260 x 260 mm, 1200 hp, ED-118A electric engines; in TEM2UM, 1-PD4A diesel-generator unit, 1200 hp. Two examples modernized in 2003 have MTU 12V396TC14 1015 kW engines.
3) From s/n 028 to s/n 1628 – 68:15.
4) Electric engines EDT-340W (108 kW), then ED-104B (113 kW), ED-107 (112 kW), ED-118A
5) For Soviet/Russian operators only.
6) Depending on variant.
References and acknowledgments
- Monographic article by Janusz Nowaczewski (KMD vol. 1/2005);
- SK, various issues;
- Down the broad LHS track: a monograph on the LHS line by Tomasz Ciemnoczułowski (2009);
- http://www.kolej.pl/~jareks/wtpkp – website by Jarek Stawarz aka Chester (unfortunately, this link is currently dead);
- BMZ website (link available at http://www.parovoz.com);
- http://scado.narod.ru (website by Vyacheslav Sokolov);
- Rolf Stumpf and Chris West (private communication).