Slovakian 110.021-3, photographed at the Skalite station on March 7, 2003. EM10 was to a certain extent based on this design.
EM10-002, photographed in Jelenia Góra on July 25, 2002. Photo by Marek Dąbrowski (thanks for permission!).
Side drawing of the EM10 in its original version…
…and after modernization. Both drawings by M.Ćwikła (SK vol. 9/2004).
EM10-102 (HCP 437/1990), location and date unknown. Photo by Z.Urbański (postcard from my collection).
Another picture of the EM10-102; Poznań Starołęka, September 16, 1993. Photo by Marek Niemiec (from my collection).
EM10-04 in its final form, Sławięcice, July 9, 2004. Photo by Ryszard Rusak (from my collection).
EM10-02, June 17, 2004, location unknown. Photo by Ryszard Rusak (from my collection).
All four EM10s (left to right: -03, -01, -02 and -04), photographed at the Poznań Franowo depot on November 25, 2012, by someone known as Klimalno; source: www.commons.wikimedia.org.
Until the appearance of E6ACT from ZNLE Gliwice (now Newag Gliwice) in 2009, EM10, or factory type 405E, was the last electric locomotive entirely designed and built in Poland. Despite this distinction it is one of the least known types – no wonder with just four examples built and comparatively short service.
The idea, conceived in 1986, was to produce a modern electric locomotive mainly for switching at large transfer stations and yards, but suitable also for light passenger and freight trains. Initially it had been intended to purchase such locomotives in Czechoslovakia, but finally an indigenous design was submitted (in fact, to a certain extent based on Czechoslovakian class E458.1, later re-classed 111 – one example, 111 016-2, was briefly tested by PKP in July and August 1988). It featured thyristor startup system, electrodynamic braking, single-arm current collectors, suspension with four Flexicoil springs for each truck and other novelties which rendered them modern compared to other types then in service. First two examples, EM10-101 and EM10-102, were built by HCP in June 1989 and accepted by PKP a few months later. In April 1991 two more followed, EM10-001 and EM10-002 (type 405Ea); they differed in startup systems being supplied by ČKD Elektron.
Initial service tests took place at the Poznań Franowo depot. First two EM10s experienced problems with poor reliability of indigenous startup systems, which were in 1993 replaced by the Czech units (on the same occasion several minor improvements were introduced). Several minor shortcomings were revealed, as it is usually the case with prototypes. They would have probably been eradicated in production machines, but these never followed. Despite plans from mid-1980s to build 200 examples and overall needs estimated even at 400, no more EM10s were built. Those delivered served mainly in southern Poland and on occasions ran with passenger trains, although were found too weak for typical line service. Failure rate was fairly high; moreover, as few transfer stations and yards had actually been electrified, diesel locomotives were preferred. Since early 2000 EM10s saw very little service. In 2002 all were scheduled for modernization, completed by the Electric Locomotives Repair Works (ZNLE) of Gliwice in July 2004 (factory type 405Em). This included new power electronics (with IGBT transistors), modern control and on-board diagnostic systems; externally – apart from new livery – the most visible features were new current collectors and repositioned upper headlights. Service numbers were changed to EM10-01 (ex -001), EM10-02 (ex -002), EM10-03 (ex -101) and EM10-04 (ex -102). All four initially went to Wrocław and later to Nowy Sącz. In March 2009 they returned to Poznań and were dumped at the Franowo depot, awaiting decision on their final fate. In 2012 it was proposed to convert them to hybrid (diesel-electric) locomotives, but this idea failed to materialize. Later, in early 2017, it was announced that all four examples had been offered for sale. Until now (December 2018), however, no customer has been found and they are still dumped at Franowo, having seen no service since 2009.
The idea of electric switching locomotives turned out to be premature, as only few large yards were actually electrified. On the other hand, due to decrease of passenger traffic in early 1990s, there was no need for a new locomotive for local trains. Be it as it was, EM10 was the most modern electric locomotive in the PKP service until the appearance of class EU43 in late 2007.
Main technical data
1) Multiple control systems removed during modernization.
References and acknowledgments
- Monographic article by Paweł Terczyński (SK vol. 9/2004);
- Modernization description by Bogdan Waga (KMD vol. 3/2005);
- www.kolejowaklatka.org (website by Marek Dąbrowski);