ET22 and EP23
ET22-834, photographed near Łowicz on March 6, 2001.
ET22-211, photographed at the Łuków
This ET22-342 was photographed near Złotoryja on
Slightly derelict ET22-121, rebuilt from sole
EP23-001, at Jaworzyna Śląska
The same locomotive: restoration is under way. July 8, 2009.
ET22-1006, photographed in Pyskowice
Production ET22; side drawing by M.Ćwikła from SK vol.6/1999.
Modernized ET22-2000; side drawing by M.Ćwikła from SK vol.11/2004.
Modernized ET22-2000, photographed at the Warszawa Wschodnia station on
ET22-1000, photographed at the Sosnowiec Maczki station on
This ET22-243 was photographed at the Łódź Olechów depot on
ET22s can often be seen with passenger
trains, but is double-heading really necessary? ET22-003 and ET22-1155 with
P57102 train at Tczew,
Another ET22 with a passenger train:
ET22-877, photographed at Wałbrzych Główny station on
... and yet another: ET22-423, photographed
in Krotoszyn on
ET22-174, photographed at the same location
ET22-1067, photographed in Jaworzyna Śląska on
ET22-436, photographed near the Warszawa Wschodnia station on April 10, 2006...
...and ET22-1010, photographed on the same occasion. Note differences between left and right side cooling louvers.
ET22-1051, photographed at the same location exactly two weeks later.
ET22-1118, photographed near the Ostrów Wielkopolski depot on June 7, 2006.
ET22-800, photographed in Lubin on the next day.
ET22-1007, Sokółka, July 1, 2006; yellow front and rear body panels were once common.
ET22-1170, Lubin Górniczy, July 25, 2006...
...and ET22-660 with ET22-935, photographed on the same location on November 24, 2006.
Lubin Górniczy again (I used to visit this station quite often): ET22-092, December 18, 2007.
Another picture of the ET22-1170, this time with a passenger train; Warszawa Wschodnia station, October 22, 2007.
The same machine, with designation changed to ET22-R002. Czempiń, May 2, 2008.
ET22-621, Kraków Prokocim, September 9, 2006.
ET22-749, Zebrzydowice, October 20, 2006.
ET22-705, Rybnik, October 20, 2006.
ET22-819, photographed at the Rogów station on November 22, 2006.
ET22-944, photographed in Zduńska Wola Karsznice on February 5, 2007; note rectangular headlights.
ET22-651, photographed at the same location on April 26, 2007.
Karsznice once again: ET22-260, April 18, 2008…
…and again: ET22-245, August 13, 2008…
…and one more time: ET22-402, December 17, 2008.
ET22-1004, Węgliniec station, April 27, 2007.
This photo captures an atmosphere: ET22-316 (note three rectangular headlights), photographed near Ścinawa on May 29, 2007.
This ET22-824, with a passenger train, was photographed on August 9, 2007, near Warszawa Miedzeszyn station – a few hundred metres from my home.
ET22-1094, photographed at Bednary near Łowicz on August 5, 2007.
Two ET22s, photographed at the Ełk depot on August 14, 2007: ET22-967...
ET22-853, arriving with the P21104 train from Lublin. Warszawa Wschodnia station, October 8, 2007.
Three ET22s with passenger trains, photographed at one of my favorite spots near Warszawa Zachodnia station on October 26, 2007: ET22-014...
Two more pictures from this location: ET22-1128...
...and ET22-1093, both taken on April 29, 2008.
ET22-1129, photographed in Bolesławiec on January 30, 2008.
ET22-225, photographed near the Warszawa Olszynka Grochowska depot on April 10, 2008.
The same engine, photographed near the Warszawa Miedzeszyn station on August 21, 2008.
ET22-308, photographed in Gliwice during a railway stock exhibition on June 15, 2008.
ET22-114, photographed at the Węgliniec depot on July 16, 2008.
ET22-317, photographed in Korsze on September 9, 2008…
…and ET22-856, photographed on the same occasion.
Two ET22s, photographed in Sochaczew on September 15, 2008: ET22-886…
This ET22-974 was photographed at the Ruda Talubska station on October 11, 2008.
ET22-826, photographed at the Węgliniec station on October 20, 2008. The shade is of me.
This ET22-430 was spotted at the Poznań Franowo station eight days later.
ET22-423, Ostrów Wielkopolski, February 6, 2009.
ET22-1000 and ET22-157, posing at the Zebrzydowice station on a cold and misty day of March 3, 2009; note single-arm current collectors.
ET22-796, photographed on the same occasion.
Zebrzydowice again: ET22-153, April 27, 2009.
ET22-442 with traces of ‘artists’ activities; Rybnik, April 18, 2009.
ET22-1126, Racibórz station, April 27, 2009.
Two ET22s, photographed in Rzepin on May 15, 2009, display new PKP Cargo livery: ET22-813…
…and ET22-583, departing with a passenger train to Poznań.
Four ET22s, photographed near the Zduńska Wola Karsznice station on June 1, 2009: ET22-652…
…and ET22-648. This storage track used to be occupied by ET42s.
ET22-939, photographed at the Krotoszyn station on the same day.
ET22, photographed near the Warszawa Żerań station on July 3, 2009.
ET22-877, Jaworzyna Śląska station, July 8, 2009.
ET22-642 with a heavy draft approaches the Zduńska Wola Karsznice station; August 5, 2009.
ET22-909, Lubin Górniczy, August 5, 2009.
Two pictures, taken at the Węgliniec depot on the same day: ET22-583…
ET22-561, Wrocław Psie Pole station, August 7, 2009.
ET22-398, photographed near Oleśnica on September 25, 2009.
Zduńska Wola Karsznice again: ET22-674, November 23, 2009. November is seldom that sunny in Poland.
ET22-298 hauls a PKP Przewozy Regionalne passenger train: Warszawa Wschodnia station, March 19, 2010. This is an interim measure: currently EuroSprinter locomotives are introduced.
ET22-1135, photographed at the Krotoszyn station on May 21, 2010.
Warszawa Wschodnia again: ET22-125, photographed on July 9, 2010...
...and ET22-102, August 18, 2010.
ET22-964 with another ET22 (idle) and a draft of tank cars; Wrocław Psie Pole station, August 30, 2010.
Two more pictures taken at this location on October 4, 2010: ET22-766…
Two ET22s, photographed in Zduńska Wola Karsznice onSeptember 1, 2010: ET22-603…
ET22-1087 approaches the Kłodawa station; September 20, 2010.
Later on the same day, I have just arrived at the Kutno station by a local train hauled by the ET22-397.
ET22-768, photographed at the Krotoszyn station on February 18, 2011. The weather was not very fine and so is the picture…
ET22-051, ready to depart from the Warszawa Wschodnia station with a passenger train: April 20, 2011.
201E-277, PTK Holding Zabrze (ex ET22-276), photographed in Roszków Raciborski on May3, 2007, by Norbert Tkaczyk (thanks for permission!). This company was later taken over by DB Schenker.
ET22-797, PKP Cargo, photographed at the Węgliniec depot on March 27, 2011.
ET22-840, photographed at the Wrocław Psie Pole station on May 11, 2011.
ET22-854, photographed near Dziecinów (Skierniewice-Łuków line) on May 15, 2011. I tried to frame the wooden privy out, but anyway it makes such a nice scenic view…
ET22-544, Warszawa Wschodnia station, May 23, 2011.
ET22-1044, photographed at the Wasilków station (near Białystok) on July 16, 2011.
The same locomotive at the Wrocław Psie Pole station, ten days later.
‘May I take a picture of your engine?’ ‘I don’t mind.’ ET22-671, Zduńska Wola Karsznice, September 9, 2011.
ET22-986, photographed in Piaseczno on September 19, 2011.
ET22-1120, photographed in Rogów on the same day.
ET22-1144, PKP Cargo, photographed in Zduńska Wola Karsznice on October 21, 2011.
ET22-934 from the same fleet, but sporting new livery, photographed on the same occasion.
Another picture from this location: ET22-718, photographed on a grey and gloomy day of December 19, 2011.
Four pictures taken at Długołęka near Wrocław: ET22-1158, November 17, 2011…
…ET22-728, two days later…
…ET22-1097, the same day…
…and ET22-903, exactly one month later.
Back to Długołęka: ET22-1052 with a draft of container cars. April 27, 2012.
ET22-017, photographed at the Sochaczew station on April 5, 2012.
Sochaczew again: ET22-063 with an indispensable draft of empty coal cars. May 11, 2012.
ET22-242, Skarżysko Kamienna station, April 14, 2012.
Modernized ET22-2005, photographed in Tomaszów Mazowiecki on April 25, 2012.
ET22-990, working a freight train together with the idle ET22-948 and an unknown SM42. Tomaszów Mazowiecki, two days later.
ET22-1138 with a passenger train, photographed at the Warszawa Wschodnia station on May 25, 2012.
ET22-608, Piotrków Trybunalski, June 17, 2012.
Zduńska Wola Karsznice: ET22-1086, June 25, 2012.
Modernized ET22-1210 (ex ET22-474), photographed in Długołęka two days later.
ET22-1160, Korsze, September 1, 2012.
ET22-651, photographed in Czerwonka on the same day.
Zduńska Wola Karsznice again: ET22-1168, September 12, 2012.
Another modernized locomotive: ET22-2011 (formerly ET22-359), Międzylesie, November 3, 2012.
ET22-1053 damaged in a crash (details are not known). This locomotive was later repaired and still remains in service. Photo from my collection.
First visit in Karsznice in 2013: ET22-883, February 27, 2013.
ET22-R001, operated by CTL Rail; Oleśnica, August 6, 2004. Photo from my collection.
Another photo from my collection: ET22-315 in ‘temporary’ PKP Cargo livery, photographed in Strzelce Opolskie on June 14, 2004.
Three older photos by Krzysztof Słowikowski (from my collection): ET22-091, Ostrów Wielkopolski depot, September 10, 1988…
…ET22-088, the same location and date…
…and ET22-019, Kraków, August 24, 1985.
Back to the familiar location of Zduńska Wola Karsznice: ET22-1160, May 23, 2013…
…and ET22-1155, two days later.
Modernized ex-ONCF 201Eo-007, owned by ECCO Rail and leased to Pol-Miedź Trans; Skarżysko Kamienna, May 29, 2013.
Several pictures taken at the Kraków Prokocim station on June 20, 2013: ET22-879 …
ET22-933, Zduńska Wola Karsznice, July 5, 2013.
ET22-901, the same location, two days later…
…and ET22-838, August 19, 2013.
ET22-1088, Koluszki station, August 21, 2013.
ET22-761 passes through the Gdynia Główna station on September 23, 2013.
Three ET22s photographed in Zduńska Wola Karsznice on October 4, 2013: modernized ET22-1210…
…and modernized ET22-1207.
ET22-R003 from the CTL Logistics fleet is former ONCF E1021; the same location, December 11, 2013.
ET22-156, Petrovice, Czech Republic, March 4, 2014.
ET22-1175, photographed in Zebrzydowice on the same day.
Petrovice again, two days later: ET22-202.
ET22-R003 again, this time photographed in Kędzierzyn-Koźle on March 28, 2014.
ET22-815 from the PKP Cargo fleet, photographed near Bąkowiec on August 24, 2014.
ET22-997, PKP Cargo, Zduńska Wola Karsznice, April 21, 2014.
Picture of the ET22-1139, taken on the same occasion.
ET22-622, photographed in Gryfino on January 28, 1999. Photo by D.Szymczyk (from my collection).
ET22-1182, Gliwice station, March 26, 2015.
Two pictures taken at the Warszawa Praga station on June 10, 2015: ET22-2004 (modernized ET22-328)…
…and ‘plain’ ET22-102.
ET22-162, PKP Cargo, Korsze, July 2, 2015.
ET22-157, PKP Cargo, Ostrołęka, August 2, 2015.
ET22-057, Kłodzko Główne, April 12, 1997. Photo by Marek Niemiec (from my collection). This locomotive was withdrawn and scrapped in January 2001.
Five pictures taken in Zebrzydowice on March 10, 2017: ET22-1170…
… and modernized ET22-1207 (ex ET22-526). All are from the PKP Cargo fleet.
This ET22-102, also from PKP Cargo, was photographed on the same day in Petrovice, Czech Republic.
Two ET22s from the PKP Cargo fleet, photographed in Ostrołęka on April 8, 2017: ET22-1021…
…and modernized ET22-2032 (ex ET22-319).
Moroccan E1006, photographed in SidiYaya du Dharm on April 6, 2005. In 2012 this locomotive was brought back to Poland and currently is operated by Rail Polska as 201Eo-006. Photo by Jean-Pierre Vergez-Larrouy (www.commons.wikimedia.org).
201Eo-001 from the Rail Polska fleet is ex-Moroccan E1008; photo taken at the Puławy Azoty station on July 28, 2017.
ET22-1170 from the PKP Cargo fleet, photographed in Dęblin on January 26, 2018.
ET22-975, PKP Cargo, photographed near Dziecinów on October 3, 2018.
ET22-989, PKP Cargo, Opalenica, October 19, 2018.
Two pictures taken on February 15, 2020, near Warszawa Okęcie station: ET22-1161 (PKP Cargo)…
… and ET22-R003, CTL Logistics (ex ONCF E1021).
ET22-1175, PKP Cargo, photographed near Puławy Azoty station on May 3, 2020.
Two more pictures from this location, taken on June 28, 2020: ET22-653…
… and ET22-1024, both from the PKP Cargo fleet. The locomotive in the background is ET22-477 (CTL Logistics).
Two more pictures from this location: ET22-1055…
… and ET22-1143, both from the PKP Cargo fleet. January 29, 2021.
Puławy Azoty again: ET22-1090, PKP Cargo, May 20, 2021.
Heavy drafts have always been typical for Polish freight traffic; no wonder, thus, that first indigenous electric freight locomotive, ET21 (726 examples built between 1957 and 1971), with continuous rating of 2040 kW, soon became too weak. Double-heading was certainly not an economical solution and, with rapid progress of electrification, more powerful freighters were obviously necessary. ET21, based to a certain extent on Soviet VL22M of early 1940s, was a simple and straightforward machine with little – if any – potential of further development. Six-axle EU20, supplied from Eastern Germany, was neither reliable nor particularly modern. Specification for a new freight locomotive was submitted in 1966, initially with an intention to produce a universal machine with maximum speed of 125 km/h, suitable also for heavy passenger trains – hence proposed class designation EU22 (factory type 7E, later changed to 201E). New locomotive owed much to British-built EU06 and its later Polish license variant EU07. In particular, traction motors were of the same type, as well as their suspension and many other items of equipment.
First prototype from Pafawag factory of Wrocław, finally designated ET22-001, was rolled out in November 1969 and tests began in December, ET22-002 joining next February. Results were basically satisfactory and next ten machines were delivered in 1971. New locomotive, compared to ET21, offered almost 50% increase of rated power and tractive effort, and was soon accepted for mass production. Between 1971 and 1989, 1207 examples were supplied, which makes ET22 the most numerous electric locomotive type ever built in Poland and in fact also in Europe. First ET22s were soon found prone to derailing, so from ET22-122 onwards connection between trucks and body was redesigned (which also resulted in reduced vibration and improved crew comfort). This modification was between 1994 and 1996 retroactively introduced in 27 earlier examples that still remained in service. Last machine with earlier suspension variant in active service was ET22-101, written off in 2007 and scrapped in 2009.
Although considered a universal locomotive at the design stage, type 201E finally emerged as a freight machine, mainly due to PKP priorities. Type 201Ea, delivered in March 1973, was an attempt to develop ET22 into a fast – at least for that time – passenger locomotive (maximum speed 140 km/h). Reduction gear ratio was changed from 79:18 to 73:22, but running qualities left much to be desired and after prolonged tests the idea was abandoned. The sole example, designated EP23-001, was converted in 1979 to the ET22 standard and designated ET22-121 (this service number was used for the second time, the first ET22-121 being written off two years earlier). 201Ed (later re-designated 103E), with the same reduction gear, LKa535 traction motors, modified trucks and maximum speed 160 km/h, never left the drawing board. During 1974, several modifications were introduced, mainly in suspension, in order to improve running qualities, but type designation remained unchanged. 201Eg, built in 1975, was the export variant for Moroccan state railways ONCF, with redesigned body (different vehicle gauge), LKa535 traction motors and many minor modifications. 23 examples, supplied between 1975 and 1976, were classed 1000 by ONCF and given service numbers from E-1001 onwards. 201Ec of 1977 featured multiplied control, further truck and suspension modifications and various minor improvements. It was initially intended to standardize this variant, but the idea was abandoned and only two examples were built, with service numbers ET22-501 and ET22-502 (later ET22-701 and ET22-702, finally ET22-1001 and ET22-1002). Many other minor modifications were introduced during production and individual batches differed externally in shape and location of side windows, air inlets and vents. Type designation, however, was not changed and apart from above-mentioned examples all ET22s built until 1987 were delivered as type 201E. For some unknown reason, later ET22s were designated type 201Eh, although in fact no modification justified this change!
Due to decrease of freight traffic and lack of passenger locomotives, ET22s are quite often used with passenger trains; their running qualities in this role are, however, far from satisfactory. In fact, running qualities have never been the strong side of ET22 and older ET21 was even considered superior in mountain regions.
In early 1970s preliminary specification was drawn up for a 6000 kW Co’Co’ electric locomotive, to be built in several variants, of which the fastest was to attain 200 km/h. Plans to build 720 such machines until 1985 proved sadly over-optimistic. New machine failed to materialize even in a prototype form and thus ET22, commonly nicknamed ‘Byk’ (Bull), is still the basic electric freight locomotive in PKP service. According to rosters quoted in SK, their number reached its peak in 1991: on January 1 PKP had 1171 examples. During next six years they dwindled to 1153 and on January 1, 1999, PKP had 1024 ET22s (of 1184 delivered). This type is also used by other operators (some examples having been purchased via scrap-disposal companies!). In mid-2006, CTL holding had seven ex-PKP machines; as state railways were not eager to sell further locomotives to the potential competitor, three examples withdrawn from ONCF service (E-1003, E-1018 and E-1021) had been purchased in 2003. Two more ex-Moroccan machines were intended to follow in 2004, but this finally failed to materialize. Jn January 2012, however, further eight ex-ONCF locomotives arrived in Poland by sea from Casablanca and were brought to the Oleśnica repair works. They were thoroughly overhauled and modernized to the 201Eo standard (modified crew compartment with air-conditioning, single-arm current collectors and several minor improvements). Six were sold to Rail Polska and two to PHU Lokomotiv. Until March 2015 further six ex-PKP ET22s were modernized to this standard and sold to various private operators. Moreover, 201E-277 (ex-PKP) was used by Kuźnica Warężyńska sand mine and finally went to DB Schenker Rail Polska in April 2010. Private operators don’t use any consistent designation system, so their machines are designated as ET22 or 201E plus service number (usually serial, but sometimes an alphanumerical designation, e.g. CTL ET22-R004 is ex-PKP ET22-791).
Basic ET22 design goes back to the 1960s and further modifications – apart from trucks and suspension – were generally restricted to details. Plans from late 1990s stipulated that about 50 locomotives of this type should be modernized by 2000, with options for further 300 between 2001 and 2005 and 200 between 2006 and 2010. It was intended to fit new ac traction motors in completely new trucks and modify the suspension, which had never been a strong side of the basic design. These plans had to be cut down substantially and first major modernization was undertaken only in 2002. The first modernized machine, designated type 201Em, with service number ET22-2000 (ex ET22-315), was rolled out in June 2004. Main effort was concentrated at improving running qualities, so trucks and suspension were thoroughly redesigned. Electric equipment and control systems were also modified, although traction motors remained unchanged. Control panel was completely redesigned. Externally – apart from minor differences, new livery and out-of-sequence service number – the modernized machine was easily identified by different headlights and rectangular air intakes to air conditioning installation, the latter being fitted for the first time. Service tests began in August 2004 and results were considered satisfactory, but next step came only in 2007, when a decision was taken to bring up further 49 ET22s to this standard during next two years. A contract for modernization of four examples was signed with ZNLE (Electric Locomotive Repair Works) of Gliwice in September and first two of these, ET22-427 and ET22-569, were delivered in 2008. Due to financial restrictions the number of 201Ems was finally cut down to 28 examples and the entire batch was completed in mid-2010. Of the remaining 22 ET22s, twenty were finally modernized to the 201Ek standard, wherein old trucks and suspension have been retained. Modernized locomotives were given new service numbers, from ET22-2000 onwards, and the last one, ET22-2047 (ex ET44-488), was outshopped in January 2011.
Yet another modernization version, more ‘modest’ compared to two above-mentioned ones, was proposed in 2011. Designated 201El, it is restricted mainly to electrical equipment, air conditioning units and driver’s cab details. It was introduced during major overhauls at the ZNLE Gliwice and first batch numbered seventeen examples. They were given new service numbers, from ET22-1201 onwards. First of 201Els (ET22-1201, ex ET22-688) was completed in January 2012 and the last one, ET22-1217 (ex ET22-593) was outshopped in September 2012. All were assigned to the Katowice regional management. Until now (mid-2017) no more modernizations followed.
Many Polish locomotives of unquestionable historical value have been scrapped, so it is certainly worth mentioning that ET22-121 (ex EP23-001) has been saved. After withdrawal, it somehow managed to find its way to the rolling stock heritage park in Jaworzyna Śląska (now Industry and Railway Museum), where it can now be seen. Its condition is far from perfect, but – considering the attitude of its present owners – things should soon improve. According to recent information, this locomotive is intended for restoration in near future, providing that adequate funds are available.
Main technical data – ET22
1) Multiplied in ET22-1001 and 1002
2) One example rebuilt from EP23-001 (ET22-121 – service number used for the second time)
3) LKa535 engines in Moroccan examples (type 201Eg)
Main technical data – EP23
1) Later converted into ET22-121
References and acknowledgments
- Monographic articles by Paweł Terczyński (SK vol. 8/2006 and 1/2007);
- Article on the ET22-2000 modification by the same author (SK vol. 11/2004);
- SK, various issues;
- www.kolejowaklatka.org (website by Marek Dąbrowski).