Class S3 was preceded by S2 with single-expansion engine. This locomotive (Cöln 357, Hanomag 2453/1892) was withdrawn before 1925. Postcard from my collection.
An unknown S3, photographed at the Berlin-Charlottenburg station on August 11, 1895. Source: www.de.wikipedia.org.
Experimental exhaust system tested on the Magdeburg 237 (Union 1082/1900); location and date unknown. Source: Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 1 (see References).
Side drawing of the S3. Source: as above.
Two S3s are used for load tests of a new provisional bridge built by railway troops: Conflans, France, date unknown – possibly August 1914. Postcard from my collection.
An unknown S3, location unknown, 1902. Photo by Alfred Kühlewindt, source: www.commons.wikimedia.org.
The most numerous class of Prussian express locomotives appeared in 1893 as a development of earlier design (classed S2 in 1906), which featured 2-2-0 axle arrangement and single-expansion steam engine. Its designer, August von Borries, was a keen advocate of compounds, which offered better economy. Apart from this modification, Heusinger-type valve gear replaced obsolescent Allan unit. Boiler was not changed. Prototype was built by Hanomag (s/n 2454/1893) and promptly standardized as Musterblatt III-2b. This very successful and efficient, for its time, express locomotive remained in production until 1904 and was built for KPEV by Borsig (90), Grafenstaden (76), Hanomag (215), Henschel (94), Schichau (138), Schwartzkopff (185), Union (76) and Vulcan (153) – 1027 examples in all, only slightly less than all later express locomotives combined! Further 41 examples were built by seven manufacturers for Reichseisenbahnen in Elsaß-Lothringen as classes A15 (six) and A16 (35); one of them, A16 No. 782, was experimentally fitted with steam superheater and renumbered S4 401. Between 1903 and 1904 Hanomag built six very similar engines, differing only in minor details, for the Großherzoglich Oldenburgische Staatseisenbahnen. They were the first express locomotives with these railways and were used on principal lines between Wilhelmshaven, Oldenburg and Bremen. This gives the grand total of 1074 examples. Those in the KPEV service were classed S3 in 1906. Twenty-six S2s, rebuilt with compound engines, were later also included in this class.
S3s were coupled with various three- and four-axle tenders, with water capacity ranging from 12 to 21.5 cu.m. They could haul a 13-tonne draft at 100 km/h, which was a good performance for that time. Apart from first experiments with steam superheating, a few S3s were used for testing several modifications concerning mainly the boiler. Perhaps the most unusual concept was to fit two long horizontal tubes that exhausted smoke and steam above the driver’s cab. These were fitted to Magdeburg 237 (Union 1082/1900). The idea was to provide better forward view for the crew, but – apart from this manifold being awkward and ungainly – smoke lifters turned out to serve this purpose much better. Another engine, Magdeburg 33 (Henschel 4172/1895) was used in experiments with streamlining, although it is doubtful if maximum speed of 100 km/h justified such measures. Further development of this class went in two distinct directions. Introduction of four-cylinder compound steam engine led to class S5, built in several variants, and further to classes S7 and S9 with rear pony truck, all running on saturated steam. Encouraging results obtained with steam superheating (even in its first, rather rudimentary form) led in turn to classes S4 – first locomotive with superheating built in series – and S6, all featuring the 2-2-0 axle arrangement; last S6s were built in 1913. Passenger locomotives class P4 were also derived from S3, with smaller drivers.
After WWI this class could hardly be regarded modern, so while the 1923 DRG renumbering plan included as many as 451 examples, only 27 were actually renumbered two years later (class 130, service numbers 13 002 through 028 – 13 001 was an S2 fitted with superheater). All were withdrawn until 1927; service numbers up to 13 022 were later assigned for the second time to Polish Pd4s, captured in 1939. Locomotives from Oldenburg were classed 1318 and numbered 13 1801 through 1806; they were also written off until 1927. Last serviceable engines of this type were based in Eastern Prussia. Locomotives from Alsace-Lorraine were taken over by France and served with the Réseau ferroviaire d'Alsace-Lorraine until 1925. Three S3s went to Latvian railways LDZ and were numbered An-38, An-45 and An-46 (class An included locomotives with the 2-2-0 axle arrangement); they were withdrawn between 1930 and 1936. Six were handed over to Lithuanian railways LG and classed K3, with service numbers 201 through 206.
Polish state railways were a major recipient of S3s, receiving 89 examples classed Pd1. This class, however, numbered 92 engines, as three (Pd1-87, Pd1-88 and Pd1-3Dz) were in fact S52s, erroneously classed by KED Bromberg. Of these, as many as 35 were withdrawn before 1936 and further twelve between 1936 and 1939. In September 1939 Soviet NKPS took over five Pd1s. Thirty-six were captured by Germans and impressed into DRG. They were renumbered 13 302 through 338 (service number 13 301 had been assigned to ex-Lithuanian K3 201, which fell into German hands after the annexation of Klaipeda in May 1939); erroneous designation of Pd1-87 was not corrected. After 1941 three NKPS Pd1s fell into German hands; two were renumbered 13 339 and 13 340 and the third served with Ostbahn. Two engines, including one erroneously classed S52, arrived in Hungary with evacuation trains. Later they went to Hungarian railways MÁV and were classed 201II (service numbers 201,001 and 201,002). At least two DRG locomotives were written off during the war. After 1945 nineteen Pd1s were returned (including ex-MÁV S52, which became Pd1-16) and all but one were given new service numbers. Two more followed in 1949 from Yugoslavia (JDŽ class 104) and eight between 1955 and 1956 from DR – none of these was restored in service. Despite considerable output, not a single locomotive of this type has been preserved.
Main technical data1)
1) Equivalent to Prussian 4T21,5; also other tenders.
2) Later production examples.
3) With the 4T18 tender.
References and acknowledgments
- Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 1 by Andreas Wagner, Dieter Bäzold, Rainer Zschech and Ralph Lüderitz (Bechtermünz Verlag, 1996);
- LP, TB vol. 1;
- Attila Kirchner (private communication);