Class A18 No. 848 ‘Frisching’ of the
Reichseisenbahnen in Elsaß-Lothringen; source:
Side drawing of the S51 Bauart Grafenstaden; source:
Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen vol. 1 (see References).
In order to test new design concepts, Prussian state railways KPEV ordered an express locomotive with four-cylinder compound engine. Such layout, promoted by August von Borries and Alfred de Glehn, offered good economy and smooth running, which was particularly important at higher speed. Order was placed with Grafenstaden, who had considerable experience from building similar locomotives for French railways. Prototype (s/n 4550), known as Bauart der Französischen Nordbahn, or French Northern Railway pattern, was outshopped in 1894. Designated Berlin 37, then Erfurt 37 and finally Erfurt 501, it remained in use until 1916 and served as a basis for new class S5 (from 1911 class S51).
Class S51 included two versions. The first one, designed by von Borries and built by Hanomag, was known as Bauart Hannover. Prototype (3408/1900) was followed by sixteen production examples, built between 1902 and 1903. These locomotives retained the Belpaire-type boiler of the 1894 prototype, but featured smaller drivers (diameter reduced from 2140 to 1980 mm). It was planned to introduce Schmidt-type steam superheater in later examples, but this never saw fruition. Bauart Grafenstaden, designed by de Glehn, also featured Belpaire-type boiler and 1980 mm drivers, but differed in steam engine design and other details. It was built for KPEV by Grafenstaden (ten, delivered in 1902) and Henschel (twelve, 1903). Engines built by these two manufacturers differed in details, such as shape and location of boiler domes. Moreover, the former company between 1902 and 1904 delivered 50 examples to the railways of then-German Alsace-Lorraine (Reichseisenbahnen in Elsaß-Lothringen, initially classed A18). Further four were built in 1913, for rather unclear reasons, as the type was then completely obsolete. Last 34 of these had redesigned boilers with reduced number of flues. This gives the total of 93 examples, excluding the experimental prototype (which in fact was later also classed S5). Class S51 was not ordered in quantity or standardized, as it was promptly followed by improved class S7 of the same layout.
After WWI all locomotives of this type owned by Reichseisenbahnen in Elsaß-Lothringen were handed over to France and remained in use with Chemins de fer d’Alsace et de Lorraine until 1937. Almost all Prussian S51s were withdrawn in early 1920s and thus no ‘new’ DRG designation was assigned to them. The sole exception was Danzig 513 (initially Magdeburg 72, then Magdeburg 501, Henschel 6447/1903) of the Bauart Grafenstaden variant, taken over by PKP and re-designated Pd3-1. This service number was in fact assigned only formally, as the engine was withdrawn before the new designation system came into use in 1926. Not a single S51 has survived until today.
Main technical data1)
1) Technical data for Bauart Grafenstaden.
References and acknowledgments
- Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 1 by Andreas Wagner, Dieter Bäzold, Rainer Zschech and Ralph Lüderitz (Bechtermünz Verlag, 1996);
- http://www.oocities.org/de/rolfwiso (website by Rolf Wisotzky);