Th1 and Th2
Hanomag 1759/1884 (KPEV Cöln 1100, then Saarbrücken 3143), photographed in Bochum-Dahlhausen on October 5, 1985, by someone who wishes to be known as MPW57 (source: www.commons.wikimedia.org).
Side drawing of the G3; source – Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 2 (see References).
Side drawing of the G41; source – as above.
KPEV G3s with inner…
… and outside valve gears; details are lacking. Source: Die Lokomotive September 1914.
KPEV Cöln lhr 1002 (Hanomag 1561/1883 – not 1882!), probably a factory photo. Postcard from my collection.
The origin of Prussian class G3 goes back to 1877, when first 0-3-0 freight locomotives were ordered from BMAG by the Berlin-Wetzlarer Eisenbahn (unofficially known as Kanonenbahn), which connected Berlin with Metz. Orders from other private and state-owned railways followed soon; within a short time this type became the standard Prussian freighter and enjoyed a long production run. It was built in large numbers by all major locomotive manufacturers in Prussia. Later large orders were also placed by newly-formed state railways Königlich Preußische Eisenbahnverwaltung (KPEV), which gradually absorbed many older railways, together with their motive power. There were several versions, which differed in details. In particular, most locomotives had inner Allan valve gear, but some were fitted with outside gear. In 1903, following the introduction of new designation system, they were classed G3, although some regional managements classed their engines with the outside valve gear G2. Total output was 2068 examples. Class G3 included, however, also a considerable number (according to www.de.wikipedia.org, 285) of other ‘non-standard’ 0-3-0s, built for various private and state-owned railways since early 1870s and later acquired by KPEV.
In 1884 a modernized variant appeared, with boiler pressure increased from 10 to 12 bar. For some time both versions were built in parallel; after 1897 only the latter remained. Until production was terminated in 1901, 165 examples had been built. Furthermore, many older engines were converted during overhauls. Their number is, however, difficult to estimate: in 1903 the 12 bar variant was classed G4 (later G41), but not all converted G3s were re-classed. As with class G3, sixteen older ‘non-standard’ locomotives originally ordered by Hessischen Ludwigsbahn were also classed G41. Production of both variants totaled 2233 examples, including nine for Ostpreußische Südbahn and three for Königlich Preußische Militär-Eisenbahn. This type was further developed into classes G42 and G43 with compound steam engines.
The above production figures do not include nine locomotives built between 1890 and 1893 by Hohenzollern and fitted with corrugated-furnace boilers (Wellrohrkessel). Known as Bauart Lentz, they were not considered successful and were later rebuilt with standard boilers.
In early 1900s G3s and G41s were commonly used with heavy freight trains throughout Prussia. They were typically coupled with three-axle 3T10,5 or 3T12 tenders. Soon, however, with the appearance of more powerful 1-3-0s (class G5) and 0-4-0s (class G7) in considerable numbers, they were gradually shifted to secondary duties. Withdrawals started shortly before WWI; several examples were sold to various private railways. Due to moderate axle load these types were found very useful with wartime military railways: in December 1917 as many as 279 were in use. After the war newly-founded German state railways DRG initially intended to keep as many as 523 G3s, but finally only 157 were re-classed 5370-71. As for class G41, corresponding numbers are 92 and 17 (DRG class 5376). All were withdrawn until 1930. However, with the absorption of several private railways by DRG in the 1930s a few saw some service with their new owner.
Considerable numbers of Prussian G3s and G41s were subject to war reparations. Polish state railways received 123 engines with the boiler pressure of 10 bar, but this number includes also six similar locomotives originally built by Henschel and BMAG for the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (VVZhD) and captured by Germans after withdrawal of Russian troops in 1915. In 1926 they were classed Th1. List of locomotive types, issued by the Ministry of Transport in 1927, gives 118 examples still in service. According to LP, only numbers up to Th1-87 are known; individual assignments, however, are not, apart from Th1-84 (former Posen 3190, Hanomag 2292/1891), which was the only locomotive of this type still in use in September 1939, fell into German hands and became DRG 53 7006. Returned in 1945, it saw no service and was written off in February 1946. According to some sources, also Th1-75 became German booty, but most probably this was in fact Th3-75. Other long-lived Th1s were Th1-86 and Th1-87, withdrawn in mid-1937. All other engines of this type were withdrawn from PKP before 1936. The 12-bar variant became Th2, irrespective of original KPEV designation. Polish railways received eight examples; as above, assignment of service numbers is unknown. In 1927 all were still in use, but seven were withdrawn before 1936. The last one in service was Th2-7, but its ultimate fate is not known. According to some suggestions, this engine was withdrawn and later reactivated, but this is just a conjecture.
A few Polish G3s were fitted with armor and used between 1918 and 1920 with armored trains; details are, however, lacking. As class Ti3 (KPEV G53) was later standardized with the armored trains of Polish Army, their military service was short and they were later returned to PKP.
By a particular twist of fate, one locomotive of this type has been preserved. Cöln 1100, later Saarbrücken 3143 (Hanomag 1759/1884), withdrawn in 1911, was later kept in Trier and used for a somehow exotic purpose of crane testing. Carefully restored, it is currently a part of the DB Museum collection in Nuremberg.
Main technical data – Th1
1) Later reduced to 172.
2) Inner valve gear.
3) Outside valve gear.
Main technical data – Th2
1) Excluding conversions.
References and acknowledgments
- www.lokomotive.de/lokomotivgeschichte/datenbank (Ingo Hütter’s database);
- LP, TB vol. 2;
- Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 2 by Andreas Wagner (Bechtermünz Verlag, 1996);
- www.derela.republika.pl (website by Michał Derela).