Th104

 

 

VSB No. 154 (Hartmann 1817/1892), later SBB No. 2484, was sold to German military railways in 1917; I have no information on its subsequent fate. Source: Der Dampfbetrieb der schweizerischen Eisenbahnen 1847 – 1966 (see References).

 

 

Second IIIq built, No. 3142 (MÁVAG 460/1892), later 325,002. In 1919 this locomotive was taken over by Romanian state railways CFR and remained in use, with its original number, until 1930s. Source: Ungarische Lokomotiven und Triebwagen (see References).

 

 

An unknown IIIq in pristine condition, which suggests a factory photo. Source: MÁV Motive Power Album (see References).

 

 

Side drawing of ÈSD class 334.3; source: EZ vol. 2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Most probably PKP class designation Th104 applied to two different types which had little in common, apart from axle arrangement. It is doubtful, however, if any of these ever carried such plates!

In 1892 Sächsische Maschinenfabrik of Chemnitz, known as Hartmann, built four 0-3-0 mixed traffic locomotives for Vereinigten Schweizerbahnen (VSB). They ran on saturated steam and were fitted with single-expansion steam engines. Operational experience with these locomotives, numbered 151 through 154, must have been encouraging, as in 1897 three more were ordered, this time from Schweizerische Lokomotiv- und Maschinenfabrik of Winterthur. These engines, numbered 155 through 157, differed in minor details and were slightly heavier in working order. In July 1902 VSB was merged with four other railway companies to form state-owned SBB-CFF-FFS (Schweizerische Bundesbahnen-Chemins de fer fédéraux suisses-Ferrovie Federali Svizzere, hereinafter referred to simply as SBB). Following this merging, these locomotives were included into class C 3/3 and re-numbered 2481 through 2487.

During WWI, several SBB locomotives, mostly of older types, were sold to German and Austro-Hungarian military railways. According to Der Dampfbetrieb der schweizerischen Eisenbahnen 1847 – 1966 (see References), four engines of this type were also included, No. 2486 in 1915 and Nos. 2482 through 2484; LP gives five examples, numbered 3101 through 3105. They were assigned to Militäreisenbahn-Generaldirektion in Brussels (MGD Brüssel) and classed G3, in accordance with German practice to assign designation of a Prussian class with similar parameters to foreign locomotives impressed into the military railways. One engine, namely No. 3101 (Hartmann 1815/1892), was taken over in 1918 by Polish authorities; details are lacking. In 1926 it was numbered Th104-1, but was written off the next year, so re-numeration might be only formal.

Two more ‘would-be’ Th104s were of Hungarian origin. They belonged to Magyar Államvasutak (MÁV) class 325 (until 1911, class IIIq) for mixed traffic, successor of earlier class IIIe, from which it differed mainly in inner frame. Between 1892 and 1907, 247 examples were built by Magyar Királyi Államvasutak Gépgyára (MÁVAG) of Budapest. Furthermore, between 1899 and 1909, MÁVAG built 35 locomotives of this type for k. k. priv. Kaschau-Oderberger Bahn (KsOd, after 1918 known as Košicko-Bohuminská Dráha). As many as fourteen individual sub-types, differing mainly in minor details, can be distinguished. The only major modification was redesigned valve gear. Five were initially fitted with Brotan-type boilers, but later re-boilered during overhauls. Class 325 ran on saturated steam, was fitted with compound steam engine and was used mainly with freight trains on secondary lines. Due to short locomotive axle base of only 350 mm, with heavy overhanging cylinders and firebox, running qualities at higher speed left much to be desired. Although superior to class IIIe, later 326, it never replaced its older kinsman and for some time both types were in fact built in parallel. After the war, it shared the fate of other MÁV locomotives, which were divided between several countries. The largest number, 102, went to Romania (designation unchanged), with 65 to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians (Yugoslavia, later class 126) and 44 to Czechoslovakia (class 334.3 – including all from KsOd). Two examples, 325,108 (MÁVAG 1386/1899) and 325,114 (MÁVAG 1392/1899), captured by Russians in 1914 and 1915, finally ended up in Poland. Most probably service numbers Th104-2 and Th104-3 were envisaged for them, but both engines – obsolete and probably in a poor condition – were withdrawn from use before these could be actually assigned. ÈSD 334.343 (ex 325,169, MÁVAG 1614/1902) was taken over by PKP following the annexation of Zaolzie in October 1938. Most probably it was not re-numbered; in March 1940 it was returned to MÁV.

According to MÁV stock lists (see References), as many as sixteen locomotives of this type were taken over by PKP after WWII. They were ex-MÁV engines, impressed into DRG in late 1944 and later abandoned in Poland. No information is available on their service with Polish railways. Given their age and condition, as well as compound steam engines which were never favored by Polish railwaymen, they most probably saw no use. Despite obsolescence of the basic design, class 325 turned out to be surprisingly long-lived and a few survived until late 1960s. No locomotive of this quite numerous type has been preserved, although a few older 326s are known to exist.

  


Main technical data – Th104-1*

 

No.

Parameter

Unit

Value

1.

Years of manufacture

-

1892 – 1897 

2.

Total built / used in Poland

-

7 / 1

3.

Tender class

-

4.

Axle arrangement

-

0-3-0

5.

Design maximum speed

km/h

60

6.

Cylinder bore

mm

2 X 450

7.

Piston stroke

mm

650

8.

Engine rating

kW/hp

9.

Tractive effort

kG

10.

Boiler pressure

MPa

1.22

11.

Grate dimensions

m X m

1.7 m2

12.

Firebox heating surface

m2

7.7

13.

Distance between tube plates

mm

4 440

14.

Number of flue tubes

-

184

15.

Heating surface of flue tubes

m2

130.9

16.

Number of smoke tubes

-

-

17.

Heating surface of smoke tubes

m2

-

18.

Evaporating surface, total

m2

138.6

19.

Superheater heating surface

m2

-

20.

Diameter of drivers

mm

1 380

21.

Diameter of idlers front/rear

mm

/ -

22.

Total weight, empty

kg

23.

Total weight, working order

kg

24.

Weight on drivers, working order

kg

49 100

25.

Weight with tender, empty

kg

67 600

26.

Weight with tender, working order

kg

49 100

27.

Maximum axle load

T

28.

Axle base (with tender)

mm

29.

Overall length (with tender)

mm

13 870

30.

Brake type

-

 

*) Data for locomotives built by Winterthur; those from Hartmann differed slightly in weights.

 

Main technical data – Th104-2 and Th104-3

 

No.

Parameter

Unit

Value

1.

Years of manufacture

-

1892 – 1907 

2.

Total built / used in Poland

-

282 / 31) – 162)

3.

Tender class

-

4.

Axle arrangement

-

0-3-0

5.

Design maximum speed

km/h

60

6.

Cylinder bore

mm

485 / 700

7.

Piston stroke

mm

650

8.

Engine rating

kW/hp

490 / 665

9.

Tractive effort

kG

10.

Boiler pressure

MPa

1.33

11.

Grate dimensions

m X m

2.1 m2

12.

Firebox heating surface

m2

8.8 m2

13.

Distance between tube plates

mm

14.

Number of flue tubes

-

188

15.

Heating surface of flue tubes

m2

113.6

16.

Number of smoke tubes

-

-

17.

Heating surface of smoke tubes

m2

-

18.

Evaporating surface, total

m2

122.4

19.

Superheater heating surface

m2

-

20.

Diameter of drivers

mm

1 440

21.

Diameter of idlers front/rear

mm

- / -

22.

Total weight, empty

kg

38 800

23.

Total weight, working order

kg

42 500

24.

Weight on drivers, working order

kg

42 500

25.

Weight with tender, empty

kg

26.

Weight with tender, working order

kg

76 500

27.

Maximum axle load

T

28.

Axle base (with tender)

mm

10 835

29.

Overall length (with tender)

mm

15 445

30.

Brake type

-

 

1) Before 1939.

2) After 1945, probably no service.

 

References and acknowledgments

 

-        Der Dampfbetrieb der schweizerischen Eisenbahnen 1847 – 1966 by Alfred Moser (Birkhäuser, 1967);

-        LP, EZ vol. 2;

-        MÁV Motive Power Album by István Mezei (Közdok);

-        Ungarische Lokomotiven und Triebwagen by Mihály Kubinszky (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1975);

-        www.pl.wikipedia.org;

-        http://erojr.home.cern.ch/erojr/Content/models/325/325_his.htm  (website by János Erö);

-        Attila Kirchner and Piotr Staszewski (private communication);

-        stock lists compiled by Attila Kirchner, Károly Novotny, Sándor Tóth, and György Villányi (thanks a lot!).