An old postcard, depicting the KPEV Halle 4066 (Jung 408/1900). This engine later became DRG 54 048 and exact date of its withdrawal is not known.
Side drawing of the G51, © Lokomotiv-Revue (source: TB vol. 1).
Most probably this engine is Danzig 1354 (Schichau 1115/1900). After the war it remained in Germany; despite being assigned provisional DRG service number 54 028, it was withdrawn before 1925. Source: Die Lokomotive September 1914 via www.de.wikipedia.org.
Between 1892 and 1910, Prussian state railways Königlich Preußische Eisenbahnverwaltung (KPEV) took delivery of over 1700 freight locomotives with the 1-3-0 axle arrangement, later classed G51 through G54. They were also built, albeit in much smaller numbers, for some other German railway managements. Class G51 (Musterblatt III-3c) was introduced in order to increase the speed of freight trains. In late 1880s their maximum speed was set at 45 km/h, but something around 30 km/h was more realistic in practice and, with standard 0-3-0 G3 and G4 freighters, not much more could be achieved. Stettiner Maschinenfabrik Vulcan proposed an engine broadly based on class G4, but with larger boiler and firebox, fitted with front Adams idle axle and designed for the maximum speed of 65 km/h. Prototype appeared in 1892 and during trials proved capable of working a 1000-tonne draft up a 2‰ gradient at 30 km/h, developing tractive effort over 50% higher than that of a G42, despite only marginally higher power rating.
New engine was immediately ordered into production and, until 1902, 268 examples were built by seven manufacturers: BMAG (Schwartzkopff), Hanomag, Henschel, Humboldt, Jung, Schichau and Vulcan. They were the first freight Moguls in Europe, although this axle arrangement first appeared in early 1850s. Due to good running qualities and speed, they saw some service with passenger trains (having been fitted with air brakes, which were missing in typical freighters at that time). Later production locomotives (from 1896 onwards) had boiler pressure increased from 10 to 12 bar, number of flues reduced from 221 to 216 and cylinders increased in bore from 450 to 480 mm. All were coupled with 3 T 12 tenders. Basic design was later developed into classes G52 (compound engine), G53 (single-expansion engine with Krauss-Helmholtz pony truck) and G54 (the most numerous variant – as G53, but with the compound steam engine).
After WWI, Prussian railways were initially left with 169 examples, but finally in 1925 only 71 of these already obsolete engines were given DRG service numbers 54 001 through 071. Last were withdrawn in 1930 and most of their service numbers were later used again, for ex-Austrian classes 60 and 160, impressed into DRG after Anschluss and occupation of Poland, respectively (ex-PKP class Ti16). Several G51s went to Belgium (SNCB class 75), France (Chemins de Fer d’Alsace et de Lorraine – 12 examples) and Poland. Polish state railways acquired 28 examples, in 1925 classed Ti1. Withdrawals started in 1936 and only six engines were still in use in 1939; at least one was sold to industry. At least three G51s were fitted with makeshift armor protection used with Polish armored trains in Upper Silesia during the 3rd Silesian Uprising in 1921. They were numbered 4003, 4160 and 4185 – it seems possible, however, that last two in fact were not G51s. After the uprising these engines had their armor removed and returned to the civil use, as class G53 (Ti3 in the PKP service) was chosen the standard type for armored trains remaining in military use.
In September 1939 three Ti1s were captured by the Germans and impressed into DRG as 54 601 through 603. Only one (54 601, ex Ti1-15, formerly ‘Danzig 4002’, Schichau 1113/1900) was returned by DR in mid-1950s and immediately scrapped. The fate of three engines is not known. Soviets captured only two Ti1s, already withdrawn from use; one of them later fell into German hands, served with Ostbahn and was returned to NKPS after the war. No locomotive of this type has survived until today.
Main technical data
1) In later examples.
2) Later Westinghouse brake in some examples.
References and acknowledgments
- www.lokomotive.de/lokomotivgeschichte/datenbank (Ingo Hütter’s database);
- LP, EZ vol. 2, TB vol. 1;
- www.derela.republika.pl (website by Michał Derela – information on armored engines).