KPEV Kattowitz 1004, later Kattowitz 4005 (Borsig 5406/1904). This engine later became Ti3-9 and was used with armored trains until 1939, eventually falling into Soviet hands. Factory photo; source: Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 2 (see References).
Side drawing of the G53, source – as above.
An unarmored Ti3 used by Polish army; location and date unknown. Source: www.derela.republika.pl.
Ti3-12 (ex KPEV Münster 4021, Hohenzollern 1771/1905), location and date unknown. Individual examples differed in armor details. In 1939 this locomotive became Soviet war booty, but later fell into German hands and served with Ostbahn. Source – as above.
Side drawing of armored Ti3; source – as above.
No. 52 ‘Piłsudczyk’ armored train captured by Germans, probably September 1939. The locomotive (ex KPEV Frankfurt 4022, Hohenzollern 1773/1905) became 54 654, was returned after the war, re-numbered Ti3-1 and withdrawn in 1952. Photo from my collection.
KPEV Magdeburg 844 (BMAG 3232/1903); I have no information on the ultimate fate of this engine. Source: Die Lokomotive August 1904 via www.de.wikipedia.org.
KPEV Frankfurt 1047 (Hohenzollern 1774/1904), probably a factory photo. This engine was later re-numbered Frankfurt 4023. In 1922 it was sold to August Thyssen Hütte; numbered 71, it was withdrawn before 1935. Source: Die Lokomotive January 1922.
First Prussian freight Moguls, later classed G51 (single-expansion engine) and G52 (compound engine) were built in considerable numbers, but their performance was not entirely satisfactory. In particular, running qualities still left something to be desired, especially at higher speed and on tight curves. It was therefore decided to shorten locomotive axle base and replace Adams lead axle with Krauss-Helmholtz pony truck. Just like with their predecessors, two versions were developed: G53 with single-expansion steam engine and compound G54. The latter enjoyed much longer production run, with over 750 examples built. G53, designed by Henschel, did not differ much from late production G51s; boiler remained virtually unchanged, albeit with higher pitch, and cylinders were increased in diameter by 10 mm. Heusinger valve gear replaced older Allan unit. This type was standardized as Musterblatt III 3l and total output was a modest 206 examples from six manufacturers: BMAG (24), Borsig (37), Hanomag (42), Henschel (44), Hohenzollern (seven) and Humboldt (52). They were typically coupled with three-axle 3T12 tenders. Apart from running qualities, G53 was only a marginal improvement compared to G51; with increasing weight of freight trains and appearance of more powerful types, these locomotives were soon relegated to secondary lines, where some were also used with light passenger trains.
After the war DRG initially intended to keep 108 engines of this type in service, but within the framework of the ultimate re-numbering plan of 1925 only 71 examples were classed 546. The last of them, 54 654 (Humboldt 227/1904, originally delivered as Hannover 1311), was withdrawn in 1931. A few were taken over by Lithuanian railways, which had two examples (classed P53) in 1926. Polish railways took over seventeen G53s, but only sixteen were finally classed Ti3; most probably one, Essen 4502 (Humboldt 228/1904) was withdrawn before 1925 or not restored in service at all. As early as in 1918 two locomotives of this type were armored and used in combat against the Bolsheviks. Further followed and in 1926 it was decided to standardize Ti3 as the locomotive for armored trains, of which ten (two squadrons) were intended to remain in use after 1929. The army thus took over twelve examples, of which ten were armored between 1927 and 1932. Two were used without armor, but it is not clear if armor kits were manufactured for them. The remaining four Ti3s remained in civil use, but were considered as a military reserve; photos of civil Ti3s are extremely rare. Armored locomotives retained their PKP plates and service numbers.
In September 1939 two engines used by PKP (Ti3-7 and Ti3-11) were taken over by DRG; the fate of the remaining two (Ti3-1 and Ti3-15) is not known. Four armored Ti3s were taken over by NKPS; according to www.derela.republika.pl, three were later used with NKVD trains. Two of them were later captured by Germans. It seems probable that the remaining eight fell into German hands, but details on five of them are not known; three were re-numbered 54 651, 54 652 and 54 654. DRG number 54 653 was assigned to ex-PKP Ti3-11 and TKi3-10, which fell into Soviet and later German hands, became 54 657 (54 655 and 54 656 were ex-JDŽ G54s; TKi3-7 was not re-numbered and withdrawn in 1941). After the war only Ti3-13 (Hohenzollern 1773/1905, DRG 54 654) was returned and re-numbered Ti3-1, but saw little service and was written off in 1952. Ti3-16 (Humboldt 232/1904), returned by DR in mid-1950s, was not restored in service. No G53 has been preserved.
Main technical data
1) Only sixteen classed Ti3.
References and acknowledgments
- www.lokomotive.de/lokomotivgeschichte/datenbank (Ingo Hütter’s database);
- LP, TB vol. 1;
- Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 2 by Andreas Wagner (Bechtermünz Verlag, 1996);
- www.derela.republika.pl (website by Michał Derela – detailed information on armored trains);
- Steam Locomotives of Lithuanian Railways by Toms Altbergs (Zidex, 2012).