Tp101, Tp102, Tp103 and Tp104
Lithuanian P.415 (formerly class OD), photographed in Tryskiai in 1925. Photo from my collection.
100th OD from the Sormovo works, photographed at the company premises in 1899. Source: www.pl.wikipedia.org.
An unknown OV, photographed during the siege of Leningrad, between 1942 and 1944. Due to low axle load, these locomotives were useful on provisional tracks. Postcard from my collection.
Preserved OV 841, photographed in Moscow by someone who wishes to be known as Alex Alex Lep. Source: www.commons.wikipedia.org.
The same locomotive, photographed on November 19, 2015, this time by me.
Preserved OD 1080 on static display in St.Petersburg, May 16, 2015. Photo by Vitaly V. Kuzmin (www.commons.wikimedia.com).
OV 7024 plinthed at the Moskva Sortirovochnaya depot, October 14, 2008. Photo by Oleg N. Tarabanov (www.commons.wikimedia.org).
OV 464, location and date unknown. Photo from my collection.
OV 6640 (Putilovskiy, 1902), preserved at the Varshavskiy railway station, St. Petersburg, Russia, October 28, 2007. Photo by George Shuklin (www.commons.wikimedia.org).
Soviet OV 2490, which fell into German hands in Malin, north-west from Kiev, in 1941. Source: Lokomotiven ziehen in den Krieg by Hansjürgen Wenzel (Verlag Slezak, 1977).
After the First World War Polish State Railways (PKP) inherited locomotives and rolling stock of German, Austrian and Russian origin. The latter, which had survived the chaos of revolution and civil war in Russia, were mostly in very poor condition. Certain classes were represented by single examples and these typically were quick to disappear from the company’s rosters. The most numerous and useful were those belonging to Russian class O.
Class O was developed from earlier class ChK (ЧK in Russian script), built by the Kolomna works for the Vladykavkaz railway in late 1880s. It retained the 0-4-0 axle arrangement (letter Ch stood for ‘chetyrekhosnyi’, or four-axle), but was fitted with compound steam engine. Design was submitted by V.I. Lopushinsky, a Polish engineer who after 1918 returned to Poland and joined the Fablok design team. Fifty examples were built, as factory types 39 and 40 – the latter with slightly modified boiler. After 1912 they were classed OdK (O¶K), where ‘d’ stood for the Joy valve gear (which is pronounced as ‘Dzhoy’ in Russian). Capital letter O meant ‘osnovnyi’ (‘basic’ or ‘principal’). With drivers reduced from 1200 to 1150 mm in diameter, this locomotive was built by four Russian manufacturers as class Od (O¶), although initially various railways used their own designation systems. Production totaled 1289 examples, delivered between 1891 and 1899, plus 30 ordered in Austria and 133 in Germany. Class OD (OД) reverted to 1200 mm drivers and steam pressure was increased from 11 to 11.5 bar. Eight Russian factories built 3172 examples between 1897 and 1903, known as ‘standard type 1897’. They usually were coupled with three-axle tenders. In order to improve economy, Kolomna works introduced Walschaert valve gear (class OK, factory type 66), but this variant was not considered entirely satisfactory and only 267 examples were built until 1907. Further modifications resulted in class OV (OB), built in series as ‘standard type 1901’ and later ‘standard type 1905’, the latter with steam pressure further increased to 12 bar. This variant typically ran with larger four-axle tenders. Mass production was terminated in 1907 in favor of class ShCh (Щ), but until 1915 this type was built in small numbers for minor railways and industry. Production was resumed in 1925, mainly for industry, and finally terminated in 1928; total output was impressive, at 4175 examples. Further improvement was expected from class OP (OП) with steam superheater and single-expansion steam engine. Only thirteen examples were, however, built between 1907 and 1908, but many OVs were later brought to this standard, starting from 1915. Other rebuilds included the following classes:
- OO – basically Od or OD with single expansion steam engine (only four rebuilt, due to very poor economy).
- OL (OЛ) – Od or OD with Lomonosov-type valve gear (hence L in designation); offered no substantial improvement and less than 200 were rebuilt.
- OU (OY) – a few dozen examples with boiler pressure increased to 14 bar, rebuilt in 1923; U stood for ‘usilionyi’, or up-rated.
- OCh (OЧ) – OVs rebuilt with steam superheating and compound engine between 1926 and 1927.
- OKR (OKP) – OVs rebuilt with piston right cylinder valves (appeared in 1935 as a result of the abandoning of mass conversion of OVs into OPs, for which purpose replacement cylinders were manufactured in large numbers). KR stood for ‘kruglyi’, or round.
- OMAN (OMAH) – this variant appeared for the same reason as OKR, but featured also piston left cylinder valves; they were used principally for switching, hence designation (MAN stood for ‘manevrovyi’, or switcher).
- OK – this designation was used again for a number of ODs and OVs rebuilt with steam superheaters in Estonia; 21 were taken over by NKPS after the annexation of Baltic countries in 1940.
In all, production of all sub-types, excluding rebuilds, totaled 9129 examples. This made them one of the most numerous classes with Russian and Soviet railways, second only to class E (Є). It has to be kept in mind, however, that both classes O and E should rather be considered groups of classes, as there were many differences between individual sub-types and few parts were interchangeable. In 1912, with the introduction of new unified system of service designations, locomotives were given individual numbers: 1 through 851 (Od), 852 through 3507 (OD), 3508 through 3701 (OL), 3702 through 7315 (OV), 7316 through 7580 (OK), 7581 through 7593 (OP, excluding rebuilt engines), 7594 and 7595 (OO). Numbering was not completed before 1917 and later was abandoned. On January 1, 1940, NKPS rosters still listed 5125 class O engines. They survived in main line service until 1964; many were relegated to switching or transferred to industry. According to www.parovoz.com, 26 engines of this type can be seen at various locations in Russia and former Soviet republics (including 21 OVs, three ODs, one OK and one OP).
Classes OD and OV were commonly used with Russian and Soviet armored trains and a few were captured by Polish troops during the war against the Bolsheviks (many interesting details may be found at www.derela.republika.pl – in English!). The majority, however, came as a part of war reparations after prolonged negotiations with Russians. In all, according to LP, 17 ODs and 94 OVs were taken over and re-gauged, in 1926 classed Tp102 and Tp104, respectively. However, the 1927 motive power list gives only twelve Tp102s and 94 Tp104s – probably five of the former class had not been re-gauged yet. Contrary to many other Russian engines, they remained in use for quite a long time, but very little is known about their service with PKP. Documentation is lacking and only eleven Tp104s can be assigned confirmed factory numbers. They were used mainly on secondary lines in eastern Poland. Several were written off before WWII and many were relegated to switching. In September 1939 at least nine Tp102s and thirty Tp104s were taken over by the Soviets and impressed into service. Two Tp104s went to Lithuania, possibly with evacuation trains. After 1941 several ex-PKP locomotives became German war booty. At least 18 Tp104s served with Ostbahn (some were later transferred to Finland). Six Tp104s and one Tp102s were assigned DRG service numbers (55 6141 through 6146 and 55 6151, respectively). According to LP, two ex-NKPS OVs were retroactively classed Tp104, although they had never served with PKP! Later they became 55 6147 and 55 6148. After the war five Tp104s and one Tp102 were returned, but saw little service, if any. Only former Tp104-12 was given new service number Tp104-1. According to Russian Steam Locomotives by H.M. Le Fleming and J.H. Price, an ex-Polish Tp104 was seen derelict in Nuremberg in 1952.
According to LP, a document issued by PKP Poznań regional management in July 1926 indicates that designation Tp101 was intended for class Od, although this type is not mentioned in Steam Locomotive Characteristics of 1927 (see References). Confirmation is lacking. It seems possible that this designation assignment was only provisional and no locomotives of this sub-type were actually taken over, but this is just a conjecture. Similarly, according to some sources (Ryszard Stankiewicz – private communication), designation Tp103 was reserved for a single example of class OL locomotive, which eventually was not re-gauged and scrapped before new designation system came into use. Another, albeit less probable, candidate for this designation is a class ChWP engine, originally built for the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (se entry on class Tp109 for more details).
Main technical data – Tp102
Main technical data – Tp104
References and acknowledgments
- LP, LOZD vol. 1;
- www.derela.republika.pl (website by Michał Derela – information on armored engines);
- Charakterystyki parowozów (Steam Locomotive Characteristics) by A. Czeczott (Ministry of Transport, 1927);
- Russian Steam Locomotives by H.M. Le Fleming and J.H. Price (David & Charles, 1968);
- Ryszard Stankiewicz (private communication).