Tp103 and Tp109
VVZhD No.479 (Kolomna 3973/1909). This locomotive later became Tp109-1, then DRG 55 6131 and JDŽ 139-001. Returned in 1949, it was scrapped. Source: LOZD vol. 1.
Side view of the Kolomna factory type 113; source – Tabor Drogi Żelaznej Warszawsko-Wiedeńskiej(Railway Stock of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway) by Bogdan Pokropiński.
The standard-gauge Warsaw-Vienna Railway (Varshavo-Vyenskaya Zheleznaya Doroga, VVZhD or BBЖД in Russian script), which began operation in 1845, initially relied on imported locomotives, built in Belgium, Austria and Germany. Russian government, however, gradually began to insist on purchasing motive power from domestic manufacturers. Between 1895 and 1899 VVZhD obtained 41 four-axle (0-4-0) engines from Hanomag, in both single-expansion (33) and compound (8) variants. Compounds were found superior and railway management ordered further 36 from the Kharkov locomotive works, delivered between 1905 and 1909. In 1912, with the unification of locomotive designation system in Russia, German engines were classed ChWG (ЧBГ in Russian script); ‘Ch’ stood for ‘chetiyrekhosnyi’, or four-axle, ‘W’ indicated the railway, while ‘G’, depending on source, stood for Germany or for the manufacturer (in Russian pronounced as ‘Ganomag’). Their Russian variant was classed ChWKh (ЧBX). Small numbers of these locomotives were later taken over by PKP and classed Tp6, Tp7 and Tp108, depending on particular variant.
With increasing weight of freight trains, especially those transporting coal to Warsaw, these engines running on saturated steam soon became too weak. Their development variant with steam superheating and single-expansion steam engine was thus ordered. Between 1909 and 1912 VVZhD took delivery of seventeen such locomotives, twelve from Kolomna works (factory type 113, service numbers 478 through 489) and five from Kharkov (service numbers 490 through 494). In 1912 they were classed ChWPK (ЧBПK) and ChWPKh (ЧBПX), respectively; lower subscript indicated the manufacturer and ‘P’ stood for ‘paroperegrevatel’, or steam superheater. Although built for the 1435 mm gauge, they could be easily re-gauged to 1524 mm.
All these locomotives remained in use until the war. In 1915, following the German offensive, retreating Russians took with them VVZhD locomotives, which were later re-gauged. Post-war treaties stipulated that all engines from this railway should be returned, but only six were actually taken over by PKP. Two (service numbers 485 and 492) were taken over by the Romanian state railways CFR, the rest ended up with NKPS in the Soviet Union. In the PKP service in 1926 they were classed Tp109. Initially based in Warsaw, five were later transferred to Upper Silesia. In 1939 they were captured by the Germans and re-classed DRG 55 6131 through 6135. The fate of the Tp109-6 is not known; according to some sources, it was withdrawn before 1936 and sold to industry, but confirmation is lacking. Tp109-1 was returned in 1949 after brief service in Yugoslavia as JDŽ 139-001, but not restored in service. Tp109-3 (Kolomna 4116/1911) returned in 1945 and served with PKP as Tp109-1 until 1952, assigned to the Kraków regional management. It was finally scrapped in late 1963. The remaining three locomotives were formally withdrawn from DB on December 31, 1951 and scrapped.
According to LP, a document issued by PKP Poznań regional management in 1926 indicates that designation Tp103 was assigned to Russian ‘class ChWP’. Whether it was ChWPK or ChWPKh is not clear, as well as assigning two different designations for the same type. Details are lacking. There is no other ‘candidate’ for Tp103.
Main technical data
References and acknowledgments
- LOZD vol.1, LP;
- monographic article by Bogdan Pokropiński (Młody Technik monthly, vol. 2/1986).