Ѵ.536, built in Kolomna in 1914 for the Moskovsko-Kazanskaya railway (factory type 144); engines for the VVZhD differed externally mainly in slightly larger drivers. Source: www.en.wikipedia.org (the same photo appears in LOZD vol.1).
Side view of the Tp110 by B.Pokropiński (source: SK vol.2/1995).
In 1914 the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (Varshavo-Vyenskaya Zheleznaya Doroga, VVZhD or BBЖД in Russian script) ordered 27 freight locomotives with the 0-4-0 axle arrangement, steam superheating and single-expansion engines from Sormovskiy Zavod. Contrary to most Russian lines, VVZhD had both 1435 and 1524 mm tracks; the main line from Warsaw to Granica (today Sosnowiec Maczki) had ‘European’ gauge. Locomotives were initially ordered in Germany and Austria, later only from domestic manufacturers. VVZhD also had an indigenous designation system, so new engines entered service as class ChsVP (ЧcВП), although they had nothing to do with ‘standardized’ class Ch. In this designation, ‘Ch’ stood for ‘chetiyrekhosnyi’, or four-axle, while ‘s’, ‘V’ and ‘P’ indicated the manufacturer, the railway and steam superheating, respectively. New locomotives have been derived from class Ѵ (‘izhitsa’, from old Cyrillic alphabet, in 1918 this rarely used letter was replaced by И), built in Kolomna and Bryansk in two variants between 1908 and 1918. By Russian standards this was a minor class, numbering 56 examples in all. Compared to the earlier engine, they had larger drivers (1300 mm instead of 1220), slightly increased steam pressure (from 12 to 12.5 bar) and boiler heating surface increased by a few percent. Maximum speed was set at 55 km/h. They were the most powerful four-axle engines, built in Russia before WWI.
New engines were numbered 601 through 627. According to the monograph by Bogdan Pokropiński (see References), only six were delivered until spring 1915. Their service with VVZhD was very short. Two (service numbers 607 and 609) were badly damaged during German assault in 1914 and left at the Łazy depot, where they were finally scrapped in 1922. The rest were taken by the Russians on withdrawal from Poland in 1915. They were converted to the 1524 mm track and remained in the NKPS (after 1946, MPS – Soviet ministry of transport) service, joined by the undelivered locomotives of this type. Most served with the Moskovsko-Kazanskaya railway. Due to their similarity to class Ѵ, they were re-classed ѴC in 1923 and re-numbered 557 through 581. Last were withdrawn in late 1950s and none has survived until today.
Although the Riga treaty of 1921 stipulated that all VVZhD engines should be handed over to Polish authorities, only one example of this type was in fact returned. According to the above-mentioned monograph by Bogdan Pokropiński, it was damaged and captured by Germans, who repaired it and restored in service. Taken over by PKP and later re-numbered Tp110-1, it was allegedly sold to industry in 1928. According to LP, it was still in the PKP rosters in 1931, but disappeared before 1936. Its serial number has not been identified. Most probable this engine, after evacuation, had remained in western part of Russia rather than being transferred further eastwards, like most of this class. Russian sources (e.g. LOZD and www.scado.narod.ru) do not confirm this and state that Soviet class ѴC numbered 25 examples. This question requires further study.
Main technical data
1) Excluding other variants of the class Ѵ.
References and acknowledgments
- LOZD vol. 1, LP;
- Tabor Drogi Żelaznej Warszawsko-Wiedeńskiej (Railway Stock of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway) by Bogdan Pokropiński (Kolpress, 2015).