Ty3 and Ty43

 

Ty43_13

 

Ty43-69, location unknown, June 1961. Photo from my collection.

 

Ty43_1

 

This Ty43-74 + 32D43-33 (HCP 1253/1948), preserved at Karsznice loco depot, is erroneously designated Ty43-1; photo taken in June 2001.

 

Ty43_2

 

Beautifully restored, but not operational Ty43-92 + 32D47-?, HCP 1273/1948, at Wolsztyn depot; photo taken on September 8, 2004.

 

Ty43_14

 

Another picture of Ty43-92, taken on April 28, 2007...

 

Ty43_15

 

...and yet another, a very beautiful one, by John Bryant, summer 2007 (thanks for permission!).

 

Ty43_10

 

Ty43-123 + 32D47-? (HCP 1354/1949), also at the Wolsztyn depot, is in much poorer condition; photo taken on April 29, 2006.

 

Ty43_16

 

During the 2008 Steam Locomotive Show, it was announced that Ty43-123 should be restored; photo taken on May 3, 2008.

 

Ty43_3

 

This Ty43-9 + 30D43-9 (HCP 994/1946) can be seen at Chabówka railway stock heritage park; photo taken on April 13, 2004.

 

Ty43_17

 

Another picture of the Ty43-9, taken on November 12, 2008.

 

Ty43_4

 

Slightly derelict Ty43-23 + 32D47-? (HCP 1110/ 1947), Jaworzyna Śląska loco depot, August 4, 2004

 

Ty43_9

 

…and the same engine in much better condition (October 28, 2005).

 

 

Ty43-23 again: May 25, 2016.

 

Ty43_5

 

Sad sequence of three wrecks, photographed in Gniezno on September 10, 2004: Ty43-64 + 32D47-? (HCP 1243/1948)…

 

Ty43_6

 

… Ty43-13 + 32D47-732 (HCP 1026/1947)…

 

Ty43_7

 

… and Ty43-108 + 32D47-423 (HCP 1290/ 1948). All three were sold for scrap in August 2005.

 

Ty3_sc

 

BR42 side drawing by H.-D.Hettler (TB vol.1).

 

Ty43_8

 

Derelict Ty43-1 + 32D47-344 (HCP 963/1945) in Krzeszowice; photo taken on August 19, 2005.

 

Ty43_18

 

In 2008, Ty43-1 was transferred to TOZKiOS in Pyskowice; this photo was taken there on May 2, 2009.

 

Ty43_11

 

Ty43-17 + 32D47-? (HCP 1045/1947), Railway Museum, Warsaw, September 5, 2006...

 

Ty43_12

 

... and cab interior.

 

Ty43_19

 

An older picture of the Ty43-17, taken in October 1988. Photo from my collection.

 

Ty3_1

 

ÖStB 42 2708 (WLF 17591/1946) can now be seen at the Heizhaus Strasshof; photo taken on June 20, 2009.

 

Ty3_2

 

Ty3-2 (Schichau 4448/1944) with a special train, photographed at the Oborniki Wielkopolskie station in May 1990. Photo by Krzysztof Bamber (postcard from my collection).

 

Ty43_20

 

Ty43-62 (HCP 1241/1948), photographed in Poznań on April 26, 1976. Photo from my collection.

 

Ty43_21

 

Ty43-115, photographed at the Janowiec Wielkopolski station, Poland, on September 8, 1988. Photo by Martin Stertz (from my collection).

 

 

CFL 5519 (WLF 17615/1948), photographed in Trier on May 16, 2010. Photo by Berthold Werner (www.commons.wikimedia.org).

 

 

In 1995 Ty3-2 was operational and, together with other engines, visited Warsaw on June 17. Photo by Marek Niemiec (from my collection).

 

 

ÖBB 42.2750 (WLF 17636/1949), originally ordered by DRG, was finally delivered to Bulgarian state railways BDŽ and numbered 16.19. It was sold to ÖGEG in 1996. Lokpark Ampflwang, August 25, 2016.

 

 

Once a common view: Ty43-64 (HCP 1243/1948) with a local passenger train. Photographed near Łopienno on September 8, 1988, by Martin Stertz (from my collection).

Basic freight locomotives in wartime DRG service were two-cylinder BR50, later developed into BR52 (their combined output exceeded 10,000 examples) and much heavier, three-cylinder BR44 (almost 2,000 machines built). Conquest of vast territories in the East brought about a need for yet another freighter, more powerful than BR50 and BR52, which had tractive effort of 16 300 kG, and lighter than BR44 – axle load of almost 20 tonnes was unacceptable on many tracks in the Soviet Union. In fact, preliminary studies of such machine had been conducted earlier: annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia had resulted in somehow similar situation, with BR50 being too weak and BR44 too heavy for mountainous regions. These studies finally led to BR42, the last DRG locomotive designed against a peacetime specification.

BR42 is sometimes described as ‘modified BR44 boiler married to BR50 running gear’. In fact, boiler was substantially modified and only firebox remained basically unchanged. Distance between tube walls was shortened from 5800 to 4800 mm. Number of flues remained at 43, but their diameter was reduced by 10 mm, while reduction of smoke tubes diameter by 3 mm was accompanied by increase of their number from 128 to 143. Evaporating surface was reduced by 16 percent and superheater surface – by over 24 percent. BR42 was a two-cylinder machine, but cylinder diameter was increased to 630 mm. This engine was intended to develop about 1850 hp and 80 km/h were to be attained, also tender first.

BR42 in this form never entered production. In April 1942 it was rejected by railway authorities, who were afraid that it would disrupt existing grandiose programs. However, Ostbahn found this design particularly suited to their needs and in August 1942 ordered its further development (it had previously been intended to re-commence manufacture of Polish Ty37s!). It is worth mentioning here that BR52s, with 3.9 sq.m grate area, could hardly burn low-grade Soviet coal from Donbass. Initially, production of 8000 examples was contemplated, but in April 1943 this program had to be cut down to 2500 machines with bar frames and conventional boilers and 1800 with plate frames and Brotan boilers – of the latter, 650 were to be fitted with condensation tenders. Another designation of these locomotives was KDL 3 (KDL stood for Kriegsdampflokomotive, or wartime steam locomotive).

Two prototypes (42 0001 and 42 0002) were built by Henschel and delivered in late 1942. They were the only engines with plate frames and Brotan boilers, and underwent extensive tests in Austria. Production machines were ordered from BMAG (former Schwartzkopff), Schichau, Maschinenwerk Esslingen and WLF (aka Floridsdorf). Many orders were cancelled and Borsig and Krauss-Maffei undertook no production of this type at all, although initially were scheduled to deliver 500 engines each. Total wartime production amounted to 844 examples (some sources give 846, probably this discrepancy comes from the fact that two prototypes were in fact built at WLF, then under supervision of Henschel, and thus are counted twice – but this is only my conjecture). Production locomotives differed from the initial design mainly in extreme simplification: crude machining of many elements or no machining at all, only one sand dome, small Witte-type smoke lifters and many other measures. On the other hand, driver’s cab was fully enclosed and insulated, which made it quite comfortable during a Russian winter – but hardly bearable in summer. Crude finish of running gear elements resulted in uneasy running even at comparatively low speed, especially with no load. Coal consumption was high, but the most serious shortcoming concerned the firebox, which was prone to failure and contributed to relatively low reliability. For these reasons, German railwaymen did not hold BR42 in particularly high esteem. Basic design was, however, sound: most problems resulted from simplifications and haste.

After the war, several more examples were built. Esslingen supplied 16 and RAW Stendal repair works – further three, assembled from spares. WLF built, between December 1945 and February 1950, 72 engines for stock (ordered during the war as 42 2701 to 2772 and temporarily retaining these numbers). Post-war users were:

-        West Germany: 701 (including those used by Saar railways and returned to DB in 1957; many not restored in service and scrapped, last withdrawn in October 1962);

-        East Germany: 49 (last withdrawn in 1969);

-        France: 2 (returned to DB in 1946, many other BR42s received from DB in exchange for BR44s were not restored in service);

-        Austria: 67 (including 16 from post-war WLF production; 16 ex-DRG machines not restored in service, last withdrawn in 1966);

-        Luxembourg: 21 (CFL class 55; all except one were brand new machines purchased from WLF, withdrawn in June 1964);

-        Bulgaria: 33 (BDŽ class 16, all purchased directly from WLF between 1947 and 1949);

-        Hungary: 25 (MÁV class 501, second-hand wartime machines from Austria, only five impressed into service, last withdrawn in 1959);

-        Romania: 2 (abandoned German locos, impressed into CFR class 150.1000 together with BR52, designated 150.1201 and 150.1202, withdrawn in mid-1960s);

-        Soviet Union: 54 (according to Kurt H.Miska; LOZD gives ‘about 70’, rebuilt for 1524 mm track and classed TL, or TЛ in Russian script, withdrawn in late 1950s and for several subsequent years kept in strategic reserve).

Furthermore, three machines from post-war WLF production were used by industrial operators in Germany and Austria. Ex-DRG 42 1597 was tested in the USA. Many BR42s used in various countries were rebuilt or reconstructed (oil firing, feedwater heaters, new boilers and many minor improvements; details can be found at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~khmiska).

Polish railways acquired just three machines (42 1426, 42 1427 and 42 1504) and designated them Ty3-1, Ty3-2 and Ty3-3, respectively. Large number of spares found at Schichau factory in Elbing (now Elbląg) justified further production, but it was transferred to HCP (aka Cegielski) of Poznań; former Schichau never re-entered locomotive business. Polish variant was designated Ty43 and, between 1946 and 1949, 126 machines were built. Of these, two (HCP 1269/1948 and 1270/1948) went to collieries, but were returned to PKP in 1952 and 1954, respectively, and impressed into service as Ty43-125 and Ty43-128. This class was assigned to regional PKP managements in Szczecin, Poznań and Lublin. Ty3 and Ty43 were in fact identical so, in 1952, three ex-DRG engines were impressed into the latter class, becoming Ty43-126 (ex Ty3-2), Ty43-127 (ex Ty3-3) and Ty43-129 (ex Ty3-1). As with other 1-5-0s of German origin, most of them were used for heavy freight traffic, but many saw also passenger service. There were some modifications, but rather typical: Friedmann injectors replaced by Metcalfe and Nathan ones, extended stack (which improved draught and slightly reduced coal consumption), flat smokebox door, different lighting and strengthened tender floor to eliminate fractures. Ty3s ran with German 2’2’T30 tub tenders (in PKP service designated 30D43), while some Ty43s were coupled with 32D43s or 32D47s of similar layout, but with enlarged water boxes. Some (probably nine) were fitted with coal feeders in late 1950s, but later these devices were removed.

Withdrawal of this class started basically in 1970s, with electrification of principal lines and mounting supplies of heavy freight diesels, mainly ST44s. Last Ty43s were withdrawn in 1989 and only two examples survived much longer in Wolsztyn, the last enclave of steam engines in Europe. Ty43-123 (HCP 1354/1949) remained in use until 1999 and was written off in October 2000 – this machine is now in Wolsztyn on static display, but in poor condition. Ty43-126 (Schichau 4448/1944 – in 1990 its previous service number Ty3-2 was restored) was used with scheduled freight and special trains until 2002. Contrary to pessimistic predictions, it was overhauled, but initial plans to restore this engine in service in 2005 failed to materialize. One more example – Ty43-92, HCP 1273/1948, withdrawn much earlier – has been beautifully restored and is also on display at the Wolsztyn depot.

Apart from the above-mentioned Wolsztyn-based machines, five Ty43s can be seen at various locations in Poland, but none is operational. These include Ty43-1, the first one built by HCP (s/n 963/1946), but this engine has been abandoned in Krzeszowice and is currently in a very poor condition. Ty43-1 on display at the Zduńska Wola Karsznice depot is in fact Ty43-74 (HCP 1253/1948). Four more (Ty43-13, Ty43-64, Ty43-108 and Ty43-111), all in very poor condition, were scrapped in August 2005. More BR42s are scattered throughout Europe. CFL 5519 (WLF 17615/1948), based in Bettembourg, is in working order. Three machines from post-war WLF production, namely ÖBB 42 2708 (17591/1946), BDŽ 16.18 (17639/1948) and BDŽ 16.19 (17636/1948) are in Austria. Further three can be found in Bulgaria (BDŽ 16.01 – WLF 17647/1949, 16.27 – 17632/1948 and 16.33 – 17603/1947), there are plans to restore 16.01 in service. Three engines are preserved in Germany. Ty43-127, formerly Ty3-3, ex-DRG 42 1504 (Esslingen 4874/1944) was sold in 1992 to Technikmuseum Speyer. BDŽ 16.16 (WLF 17654/1949) is in Bayerisches Eisenbahnmuseum in Nördlingen. Data on BDŽ 16.15 (WLF 17640/1948) are contradictory: according to EDÖ, it is owned by a recycling company and has recently been offered for sale, while other sources claim that it is at Dampflokmuseum Hermeskeil.

 


Main technical data

 

No.

Parameter

Unit

Value

1.

Years of manufacture

-

1943 – 1947

2.

Total built / used in Poland

-

9353) + 126 /

32) + 126

3.

Tender class

-

30D43, 32D43, 32D47

4.

Axle arrangement

-

1-5-0

5.

Design maximum speed

km/h

80

6.

Cylinder bore

mm

2 X 630

7.

Piston stroke

mm

660

8.

Engine rating

kW/hp

860 / 1170

9.

Tractive effort

kG

18 000

10.

Boiler pressure

MPa

1.63

11.

Grate dimensions

m X m

3.07 X 1.53

12.

Firebox heating surface

m2

19.3

13.

Distance between tube plates

mm

4 800

14.

Number of flue tubes

-

143

15.

Heating surface of flue tubes

m2

99.3

16.

Number of smoke tubes

-

43

17.

Heating surface of smoke tubes

m2

81.0

18.

Evaporating surface, total

m2

199.6

19.

Superheater heating surface

m2

75.8

20.

Diameter of drivers

mm

1400

21.

Diameter of idlers front/rear

mm

850 / -

22.

Total weight, empty

kg

86 700

23.

Total weight, working order

kg

96 600

24.

Weight on drivers, working order

kg

85 500

25.

Weight with tender, empty

kg

106 700

26.

Weight with tender, working order

kg

157 4004)

27.

Maximum axle load

T

17.61)

28.

Axle base (with tender)

mm

19 000

29.

Overall length (with tender)

mm

23 000

30.

Brake type

-

Knorr

 

1)     Some sources give 17.1 tons, which may apply to test examples.

2)     In 1952 merged into class Ty43.

3)     Some sources give 937.

4)     Weight data vary slightly depending on reference – Polish sources give 158 000 kg.

 

References and acknowledgments

 

-       http://www-personal.umich.edu/~khmiska (website by Kurt H. Miska – unfortunately no longer active, also private communication);

-       www.parowozy.best.net.pl. (website by Michał ‘Doctor’ Pawełczyk);

-       TB vol. 1, PNPP, EDÖ.