Ty45

 

Ty45_11

 

Ty45-145, Warszawa Praga depot, July 1961. Photo from my collection.

 

Ty45_1

 

Ty45-139 + 30D43-68 (HCP 1047/1947), Kościerzyna depot,, August 13, 2004: the weather was very bad!

 

Ty45_23

 

Another picture of the Ty45-139, taken on September 23, 2013.

 

Ty45_2

 

Ty45-149 + 30D43-318 (HCP 1058/1947), plinthed in Kluczbork; photo taken on August 22, 2005.

 

Ty45_3

 

Ty45-205 + 32D47-221 (HCP 1126/1947) in pristine condition,  plinthed in Iłowo; photo taken on October 24, 2004.

 

 

The same locomotive, photographed on July 1, 2015, in need for a refurbishment.

 

Ty45_4

 

This Ty45-94 + 27D47-3 (Fablok 1638/1947) is plinthed at the Ostrów Wielkopolski depot; photo taken on November 26, 2003.

 

Ty45_9

 

Ty45-94 was externally refurbished in late 2005 and now looks much better; photo taken on June 7, 2006.

 

Ty45_5

 

Ty45-379 + 27D47-35 (HCP 1388/1949), Wolsztyn depot, September 8, 2004.

 

Ty45_6

 

Ty45-217 + 30D43-217 (Fablok 1752/1947), withdrawn in 1984, is plinthed at the Tarnowskie Góry depot; September 28, 2005.

 

Ty45_7

 

Ty45-39 + 32D43-22 (HCP 988/1946), preserved at the Zduńska Wola Karsznice depot; photo taken on May 27, 2001.

 

Ty45_13

 

The same engine, photographed on August 13, 2008.

 

Ty45_sc

 

Side drawing of Ty45 + 32D47; source – PPN.

 

Ty45_8

 

Ty45-20 (Fablok 1598/1946) at the Industry and Railway museum In Jaworzyna Śląska, May 1, 2006.

 

Ty45_18

 

The same engine, photographed on July 8, 2009.

 

 

 

Ty45_10

 

Ty45-2560 (Fablok 2560/1950) was used by the Kotlarnia sand mine and has been plinthed at the company’s premises; photo taken on October 4, 2006. The engine in the background is Ty2-2118.

 

Ty45_12

 

Another picture of the Ty45-2560, taken on June 15, 2008.

 

Ty45_14

 

Ty45-6 (Fablok 1584/1946), abandoned near the Kędzierzyn-Koźle depot…

 

Ty45_15

 

…and another picture of the same engine; both taken on April 18, 2009.

 

Ty45_16

 

Ty45-158 (HCP 1068/1947), owned by TOZKiOS railway fan society; Pyskowice, May 2, 2009.

 

Ty45_17

 

Another Ty45 from the TOZKiOS collection: Ty45-125 (Fablok 2592/1951), photographed on the same occasion.

 

Ty45_19

 

An unknown Ty45, location and date unknown. Photo by A.Żmuda (postcard from my collection).

 

Ty45_20

 

Several more photos from my collection. Ty45-158, abandoned in Krzeszowice (date unknown)…

 

Ty45_21

 

…Ty45-390 in Międzyrzecz, date also unknown (photo by Martin Stertz)…

 

 

…and another photo by the same author: Ty45-292 (HCP 1144/1948), Pyskowice depot, June 11,1979.

 

 

One more picture of the Ty45-20: Jaworzyna Śląska, May 25, 2016.

 

 

Ty45-379 photographed during its visit to Warsaw on June 17, 1995. Photo by Marek Niemiec (from my collection).

 

 

Ty45-386 (Fablok 2546/1950), photographed at the Chabówka railway heritage park on May 6, 2017.

Since the introduction of Ty23 in mid-1920s until the end of the steam era, Decapods dominated heavy freight traffic in Poland. Pre-war output of Ty23 and its derivative, Ty37, amounted to 639 examples. After WWII, many German BR42s, BR44s, BR50s and BR52s were impressed into service; together with those built in Poland after 1945, their number reached almost 1900 examples. Apart from three-cylinder BR44 (Ty4 in PKP service), of which only 132 were at hand, all these machines were substantially weaker then pre-war Ty37. As it was obvious that coal transport from Silesia to the Baltic ports would be of vital importance for Polish economy, it was decided to re-commence the production of Ty37 in a slightly modified variant. Fortunately, technical documentation of this machine was saved.

Drawing on experience with ex-German locomotives, it was decided to fit a fully enclosed driver’s cab, which changed the silhouette. Steel firebox replaced copper one, previously used, and exhaust-steam injector was fitted. Contrary to Ty37, circulation tubes were initially deleted, but they were fitted in last production examples and later standardized. Grate and ashpan were later modified during overhauls and some engines were fitted with coal feeders and/or rocking grates. From 1964 onwards, several Ty45s (probably seventeen) were converted to oil firing, but this was soon abandoned and they were finally restored to initial configuration. Ty45s were typically coupled with 32D47 tub tenders which, compared to 22D23s used with Ty37s, took much more water (32 cu.m instead of 22 cu.m); coal capacity was also increased from 10 to 12 tonnes. New tenders were manufactured by Pafawag company of Wrocław (pre-war Linke-Hofmann); those fitted with coal feeders were re-designated 27D47. Many early engines ran also with similar 30D43 or 32D43 tub tenders of German design.

Production of Ty45 started in 1947, both at Fablok in Chrzanów and at HCP (Cegielski) in Poznań. Until 1951, these two companies built for PKP 170 and 258 examples, respectively. Moreover, twenty were supplied to industrial operators in Upper Silesia (probably all from Fablok), bringing the grand total to 448. As its predecessor, Ty45 was an economical and reliable machine which gave a good service. Compared to later Ty51 and imported Ty246, it was weaker and demanded high-grade coal (with almost the same cylinder diameter, its grate area was smaller by about 28%). Before these two types appeared in quantity, however, Ty45s were the most powerful freight engines in Poland and sometimes hauled drafts weighting over 3000 tonnes.

Ty45s remained in service throughout the country until the end of steam era, together with other Polish Decapods. With mounting supplies of heavy diesel locomotives since mid-1960s and progressing electrification of main lines, most of them were withdrawn from line service in the 1970s and relegated to switching, mainly in Upper Silesia. In this role they survived until late 1980s. Industrial operators kept Ty45s in service for a few years longer, probably until 1993. Apart from twenty engines built for them, they took over a few dozen Ty45s withdrawn from PKP. According to www.parowozy.best.net, Silesian collieries and sand railways had 56 examples. Some of them retained PKP numbers, other were identified by serials, while some had individual designations given by operators. If an engine was transferred to another operator, which happened quite often, its designation could change: there was no general rule.

In 1999, seventeen Ty45 still existed and two (Ty45-20, Fablok 1598/1946, and Ty45-379, HCP 1388/1949) were operational. According to www.holdys.pl/tomi, fourteen have survived until today, but two are listed as wrecks (Ty45-301 was scrapped, probably in 2003, Ty45-345 followed in August 2006 and Ty45-418 in 2007). Some of them are plinthed at various locations. Two above-mentioned engines kept in working order have seen no service for a couple of years due to boiler certificate expiry. Ty45-20 from Jaworzyna Śląska depot was transferred to Wolsztyn in December 1999 and served there until May 2000. Later it returned to Jaworzyna and most probably will remain on static display. Wolsztyn-based Ty45-379 (last example in PKP service) hauled its last train in October 2002 and was then used for a couple of weeks as a stationary boiler, to be finally withdrawn in February 2003.

 


Main technical data

 

No.

Parameter

Unit

Value

1.

Years of manufacture

-

1946 – 1951

2.

Total built / used in Poland

-

448 / 4481)

3.

Tender class

-

30D43, 32D47

4.

Axle arrangement

-

1-5-0

5.

Design maximum speed

km/h

75

6.

Cylinder bore

mm

2 X 630

7.

Piston stroke

mm

700

8.

Engine rating

kW/hp

1265 / 1720

9.

Tractive effort

kG

18 380

10.

Boiler pressure

MPa

1.63

11.

Grate dimensions

m X m

2.81 X 1.62

12.

Firebox heating surface

m2

17.0

13.

Distance between tube plates

mm

5 100

14.

Number of flue tubes

-

130

15.

Heating surface of flue tubes

m2

95.7

16.

Number of smoke tubes

-

40

17.

Heating surface of smoke tubes

m2

86.16

18.

Evaporating surface, total

m2

196.85

19.

Superheater heating surface

m2

81.1

20.

Diameter of drivers

mm

1450

21.

Diameter of idlers front/rear

mm

860 / -

22.

Total weight, empty

kg

90 000

23.

Total weight, working order

kg

97 500

24.

Weight on drivers, working order

kg

85 000

25.

Weight with tender, empty

kg

111 6002)

26.

Weight with tender, working order

kg

163 1002)

27.

Maximum axle load

T

17.25

28.

Axle base (with tender)

mm

18 7082)

29.

Overall length (with tender)

mm

22 3882)

30.

Brake type

-

Knorr, Westinghouse

 

1)      Including 20 for industrial operators.

2)    With 32D47 tender; 159 000 kg in working order with 30D43 tender.

 

References and acknowledgments

 

Concise information can be found in PNP and AP.