TKi1-9 (former Kattowitz 7254, Union 813/1895), photographed in Rozwadów in February 1940. Still displaying PKP emblem and service number, this engine is operated by DRG. Renumbered 90 247, it was returned by DR in 1955 and scrapped. Source: National Digital Archives (used by permission).
Preserved DRG 90 009 (formerly Köln 7270, Borsig 4431/1892) in its original KPEV livery. Photographed in Bochum-Dahlhausen on September 12, 1982, by someone who wishes to be known as MPW57. Source: www.wikipedia.de.
The same locomotive, photographed at the Interlok premises shortly after refurbishment on May 8, 2015. Photo by Hermann Schmidtendorf; source: www.commons.wikimedia.org.
Class 900-2 side drawing from TB vol.2; © Lokomotiv-Revue.
This T91 is probably Cöln 1828, Borsig 4423/1892. Location and date unknown, possibly factory photo. From my collection.
Last T9 Bauart Langenschwalbach built, Frankfurt 1919 (BMAG 2207/1895). Later re-numbered Frankfurt 7247, it was withdrawn before 1925. Factory photo, source: Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 3 (see References).
Side drawing of T9 Bauart Langenschwalbach; source: as above.
In late 19th century Prussian state railways KPEV were developing rapidly and needed many freight tank locomotives for light trains, branch lines and switching. Classes T1 and T2 with two driven axles were followed by T3 with the 0-3-0 axle arrangement, built in large numbers (over 1500 examples for KPEV and several other customers). Classes T7 and T8 of the same layout were far less numerous; the latter, intended for higher speed, was particularly unsuccessful due to very poor running qualities and had to be relegated to switching. Next class, T9, included six distinct versions, differing not only in details; their combined number was almost 2800 examples. Three of these variants, of completely different designs (T9 Bauart Elberfeld, T9 Bauart Langenschwalbach and a single T9 of the Oberhessischen Eisenbahn), were included into this class for administrative reasons only.
Prototype T91, with the 0-3-1 axle arrangement, was built by Borsig in 1892 (s/n 4412). It was followed by 419 engines for KPEV and six for the Kronberger Bahn (impressed into the state railways in January 1914) plus six more for the Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn (LBE), the latter operator later acquiring four more second-hand machines from KPEV. They were built by seven manufacturers: Borsig, Grafenstaden, Hanomag, Henschel, Hohenzollern, Schichau and Union. Production was terminated in 1903. In service class T91 turned out to be not entirely satisfactory. With rear Adams idle axle, running qualities still left something to be desired, the more so that maximum speed was increased to 60 km/h. In class T92 axle arrangement was reverted, but major improvement was achieved only with class T93, which featured Krauss-Helmholtz lead truck. T93 was a very successful engine, of which over 2000 examples were built.
After WWI German railways were left with 328 T91s, but during the final DRG renumbering in 1925 (class 900-2) only numbers up to 231 were assigned. However, engines with service numbers 022, 023, 116, 123 and 124 were in fact T92s – this error was never corrected. Eight more incorrectly numbered T92s were re-classed in 1925. In 1922 three engines were handed over to the Bremen Harbor; returned to DRG in 1930, they were numbered 90 232 through 234. In 1935 DRG took over three engines from the Eisenbahnen des Saargebietes, which became 90 235 through 237. Service numbers 238, 239 and 240 were never assigned. In 1938 LBE was absorbed by DRG. At that moment the company still had five T91s, which were re-numbered 90 241 through 245. Almost all of these obsolete and not very successful engines were withdrawn between 1926 and 1930, probably only ten surviving until WWII. At least thirteen went to industry or private operators.
Polish state railways acquired 45 T91s, classed TKi1. Of these, three served in Gdańsk (TKi1-1Dz through 3Dz). According to LP, there were five more with no PKP service numbers – possibly they had been withdrawn before these were assigned. Eighteen were withdrawn before the outbreak of WWII. After September 1939 twenty were taken by the Soviets (including one already withdrawn) and four by the Germans. Eight Soviet engines fell into German hands after June 1941. Ultimate fate of the remaining five TKi1s is not known. DRG service numbers were assigned to six ex-PKP engines (90 246 through 251). Four locomotives of this type were returned after the war, but their service was very short. One more (former TKi1-9) was returned by DR in October 1955 and written off two months later, without being assigned new service number.
According to some sources, pre-war PKP class TKi1 included also a single T9 Bauart Langenschwalbach, numbered TKi1-6 (former KPEV Frankfurt 1913, then Frankfurt 7241, BMAG 2191/1895). This sub-class numbered nineteen locomotives, built by Esslingen (eight) and BMAG (eleven) for demanding mountain lines with steep gradients. Compared to class T91, they had different boilers, drivers of smaller diameter and reduced axle base. Maximum speed was reduced to 50 km/h. Most of them were withdrawn until 1925. One was sold to Stolper Talbahn in 1917 and two to Bremer Hafenbahn shortly after the war; the latter, returned to DRG in 1930, were re-numbered 90 232 and 90 233, but withdrawn the same year. Information on the sole Polish locomotive of this type is not confirmed by LP and details are lacking.
Two T91s have been preserved. Former KPEV ‘Köln 7270’ can be seen at the Railway Museum in Bochum-Dahlhausen in its original Prussian livery. This engine (Borsig 4431/1892) was sold to a sugar plant in 1926 and acquired by DGEG (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Eisenbahngeschichte) in 1968. In 2015 it was completely refurbished by Interlok company of Piła. Former ‘Köln 7294’ (Hohenzollern 850/1895), sold also in 1926 to a colliery, was taken over by a railway fan society in 1972 and since 2004 is on display at the Süddeutsches Eisenbahnmuseum in Heilbronn.
Main technical data – class T91
1) Including those for LBE.
2) Including three examples used in Gdańsk.
Main technical data – class T9 Bauart Langenschwalbach
1) Engines from Esslingen.
2) Engines from BMAG.
References and acknowledgments
- Ingo Hütter’s locomotive database (www.lokomotive.de),
- TB vol. 2, LHR, LP;
- SK vol. 5/2015;
- Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen Band 3 by Andreas Wagner (Bechtermünz Verlag, 1996).