An unknown P42, date and location unknown (possibly 1914). Source: www.commons.wikimedia.org.
Side drawing of the Od2, © Zdzisław Kołoda (based on drawings by Bogdan Pokropiński). Source: KMD vol. 1/2004.
I have found this interesting photo at a Polish discussion forum (www.forum.dawnygdansk.pl). Od2-3Dz, former Danzig 1989 (Henschel 9089/1908), Kartuzy depot, date unknown. In 1939 this engine became 36 445, remained in Gdansk and was damaged beyond repair in March 1945. If the forum user nicknamed Hamburger finds this entry, he is kindly asked to contact me.
Along with two prototype 2-2-0 passenger locomotives that featured single-expansion steam engines, Prussian state railways KPEV in 1891 ordered two compounds of the same layout. Apart from steam engine type, singles and compounds were very similar. Built by Henschel (3359/1891 and 3360/1891) and numbered Erfurt 492 and 493 (later Halle 1901 and 1902), these locomotives were initially found troublesome due to startup problems, common to all compounds: at certain valve gear positions, steam admission to the high-pressure cylinder was closed. Only after the introduction of Dultz startup valve in 1894 they were judged ready to service use. Tests showed them to develop higher tractive effort and possess better economy than their single-expansion counterparts. In 1898 they were ordered in quantity as Musterblatt III 1-e, 707 examples being eventually delivered by Schwartzkopff (255), Henschel (227), Humboldt (121), Linke-Hofmann (53) and Hanomag (51). Production for KPEV was terminated in 1910; at that time this type had already become obsolete, but, due to initial problems with steam superheating and inherent conservatism, many regional railway managements preferred to order well-proven engines running on saturated steam. In 1906 both singles and compounds were classed P4; the latter were later distinguished as class P42. Two prototypes were also duly re-classed; they were referred to as Bauart Erfurt, with series examples were known as Bauart Hannover. Furthermore ten singles were later converted to compounds, bringing their total number to 719.
The 2-2-0 compounds quickly superseded their older kinsmen and were assigned to almost all regional managements (with the exceptions of Bromberg, Cöln and Mainz). They remained the mainstay of KPEV passenger traffic until the introduction of superheated P6s and eventually very successful P8s. They were also built, with some modifications, in smaller numbers for other railway companies. Between 1903 and 1912 Mecklenburgische Friedrich Franz Eisenbahn (MFFE) received 31 examples in two batches, numbered 201 through 231. Eight were built between 1907 and 1909 for Großherzoglich Oldenburgische Staatseisenbahnen; of these, three were fitted with Lentz-type valve gear. Between 1905 and 1906 five examples were ordered by Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn (LBE) from Linke-Hofmann (service numbers 65, 66, 123, 124 and 125); due to shorter turntables they had reduced axle base.
Contrary to single-expansion P41s, of which only a handful were eventually impressed into service with DRG, compounds fared much better. Provisional re-numeration plan included as many as 551 examples, with 439 being finally re-classed 360-4, service numbers running from 36 001 to 36 438. Posen 1915 (Linke-Hofmann 197/1903) was passed to MFFE in 1920 and numbered 232, so after 1925 it was re-numbered 36 601, together with other engines operated by this railway, which became 36 602 through 620 (first batch) and 36 651 through 662 (second batch, with slightly higher axle load). Locomotives from Oldenburg were re-numbered 36 1251 through 1258, while those from LBE had already been withdrawn when the company was absorbed by DRG on January 1, 1938. Most of these locomotives were written off in late 1920s or early 1930s, only a handful surviving until 1939. Six engines went to Lithuania (LG class K42, service numbers 151 through 156) and three to Latvia (LDZ class An, which included various 2-2-0s, service numbers An-35 through 37).
Polish state railways received as many as 97 locomotives, which were later classed Od2. Most of them were initially assigned to Warsaw regional management; three, Od2-1Dz through 3Dz, were based in Gdańsk. While all singles (PKP class Od1) were withdrawn until 1938, most of the compounds survived until WWII, only twelve being written off before September 1939. Due to their assignments, most Od2s fell into German hands: 66 examples in all, later re-numbered 36 444 through 508 (Od2-31 was withdrawn in June 1940). Only fourteen, including one already withdrawn, became Soviet booty, but none was re-gauged and later all were captured by Germans. Twelve became DRG 36 509 through 520 and two served with Ostbahn, retaining their PKP numbers. Two Od2s went in September 1939 to Lithuania with evacuation trains; in 1940 they were taken over by NKPS and eventually fell into German hands. Most of the Od2s taken over by DRG remained in the Warsaw area, running with local and suburban trains. After the war 58 engines were returned, plus six that never served with PKP. Of these, 46 were restored in service and given new consecutive numbers. Twelve saw no service and were scrapped. Seven ex-PKP engines, returned by DR in December 1955 and January 1956, also ended up as scrap. Again, Warsaw regional management initially remained the principal domain of this class. At least one Od2 initially worked trains on the EKD (Elektryczna Kolej Dojazdowa – Electric Commuter Railway, electrified in 1927) between Warsaw and Grodzisk Mazowiecki, before electric power supply was resumed in May 1945. Later, starting from 1947, Od2s were transferred to Poznań, Szczecin and Olsztyn. Withdrawals started in the earnest in mid-1950s and the last engine in use, Od2-6 (pre-war Od2-16, Henschel 5902/1902), was written off in February 1958. Od2s were among the last locomotives with slide valves in the PKP service. Despite considerable number built, not a single example has been preserved.
Main technical data
1) Excluding similar engines built for railway managements other than KPEV.
References and acknowledgments
- Lokomotiv-Archiv Preußen by Andreas Wagner, Dieter Bäzold, Rainer Zschech and Ralph Lüderitz (Bechtermünz Verlag, 1996);
- Article on class Od2 by Bogdan Pokropiński (KMD vol. 1/2004);
- Ingo Hütter’s website www.lokomotive.de/lokomotivgeschichte/datenbank;
- LP, TB vol. 1.