OKi1-28, photographed at the
The same engine, photographed on
A drawing from the LHW catalogue card shows LBE No.125 ‘Fuchs’ (Linke-Hofmann 334/1906). This engine was sold to the Altona-Kaltenkirchen-Neumünster railway in 1923 and served there as No.18 until 1953. From my collection.
Class 740-3 side drawing, © Lokomotiv-Revue; source: TB vol.2.
KPEV class T11 Berlin 2132 (Vulcan 2032/1903). Postcard from my collection.
Berlin 2164, Borsig 5425/1904, location and date unknown (probably factory photo). In 1925 this locomotive became 74 027, but was withdrawn four years later. Photo from my collection.
74 101 (ex Berlin 7584, Union 1399/1905), photographed at the Berlin Lehrter Bahnhof depot on June 15, 1932. This engine was written off in August 1933. Postcard from my collection.
KPEV Mainz 1658 (Hohenzollern 1873/1905) later became Mainz 7509 and then DRG 74 078; withdrawn in 1926. Location and date unknown. Source: Die Lokomotive June 1922.
Preserved 74 231 (Union 1602/1908) in its original livery as KPEV Hannover 7512, photographed in Bochum-Wattenscheid on April 18, 2010 by someone who wishes to be known as Tenderlok (source: www.commons.wikimedia.org).
Prussian state railways KPEV designated both passenger and freight tank engines with capital T, for Tenderlokomotive. After steam superheating had been introduced, it was decided to use even and odd number for engines running on superheated and saturated steam, respectively. Thus, T9 was a freight locomotive with 1350 mm drivers and maximum speed set at 60 to 65 km/h, built in large numbers and three main variants. Next was T10, a modern passenger engine for suburban traffic with 2-3-0 axle arrangement, 1750 mm drivers and maximum speed of 100 km/h, of which only twelve were built. T11, designed by renowned Robert Garbe as a development of class T93, in fact preceded T10 by a few years and was a less advanced design, with 1500 mm drivers, single-axle Krauss-Helmholtz lead truck, tractive effort of 8.6 tonnes and maximum speed of 80 km/h. Prototype was completed by Union-Gießerei of Königsberg in 1903 and 470 examples were built for KPEV until production terminated in 1910. The majority came from Union (364 examples), the rest being supplied by Borsig, Hohenzollern and Vulcan. Furthermore, Linke-Hofmann Werke built nine almost identical machines for Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn (LBE) in three small batches, between 1906 and 1908. Most T11s ran with suburban trains; KED Berlin alone received 141 examples for Berliner Stadtbahn, Berliner Ringbahn and commuter lines. Despite the appearance of more economical superheated T12, the earlier engine remained in production for a few more years, as many railway managements favored simple and proven designs. Moreover, T12 initially suffered from some teething troubles, which was attributed to superheating.
Robert Garbe was one of the keenest advocates of single-expansion engines running on superheated steam. No wonder, thus, that such derivative of T11 appeared even before the latter was ordered in quantity. In 1905 it was accepted as class T12 and was eventually destined to outnumber its predecessor: over 1000 were built until 1923. T12 offered more power and much better economy and therefore started to supplant its older kinsman as soon as initial problems had been solved.
After WWI, newly-formed DRG were left with 358 T11s, classed 740-3. In 1926 twenty were rebuilt with steam superheating, but this program was not proceeded with, as electrification of suburban lines rendered these engines surplus. In particular, electrification of the S-Bahn between 1924 and 1933 left a few hundred tank engines with no job. While more modern T12s were relegated to secondary lines and switching, many T11s were withdrawn. In late 1920s and early 1930s as many as 204 locomotives of this type were written off, some after less than twenty years in service. Two more followed during WWII; furthermore, a few were sold to various private local railways. Similarly, of nine examples in the LBE inventory (which had not been taken over by DRG), seven were written off between 1926 and 1932 or sold; only two survived until 1953. After WWII, DB were left with just 65 engines of this type, most were withdrawn in early 1950s. DR had sixty; a few soldiered on until late 1960s, quite a lot went to industry. Four examples were taken over by Soviet MPS (Ministry of Transport), but their service was probably very short.
Polish railways were a major recipient of T11s after WWI. As many as 56 examples were taken over and impressed into service. They were classed OKi1 and given service numbers from 1 to 52; four operated in Gdańsk were designated OKi1-1Dz through –4Dz, where Dz stood for ‘Danzig’ (in fact, all four had been operated in Gdańsk by KPEV before 1918). Most of these obsolescent, but reliable engines served in Upper Silesia on local lines. Two (OKi1-5 and OKi1-24) were withdrawn before 1936, the rest survived until the next war. In September 1939 the majority were taken over by DRG and given service numbers after those withdrawn before the war; six fell into Soviet hands (one after a brief period with Lithuanian railways LG), but five of them were later re-captured by Germans. After 1945, thirty-seven were returned to PKP, but one (former OKi1-3Dz) was not given new service number and written off in April 1950. Furthermore, a number of DRG engines were taken over. Data from various sources vary, but most probably they numbered twenty examples, of which five (74 091, -197, -314, -321 and -323) were not given service numbers and were formally written off in February 1946. Two engines, OKi1-47 and OKi1-48, were in fact ex-Belgian T12s. This erroneous classification was eventually realized and these locomotives were re-numbered Oki2-82 and Oki2-84, respectively (many thanks to John Peakman for information!). This gives 50 examples in post-war PKP service. According to some sources, ex-Belgian T12 9604 (former Köln 7704, Borsig 6368/1908) was reported as belonging to a rolling stock repair establishment in Poznań in 1950; confirmation is lacking. These comparatively weak engines performed best on flat-profile lines, so all were assigned to the regional railway management in Gdańsk. Some were later relegated to auxiliary duties and switching. Their withdrawal started in early 1950s and only eleven survived with PKP until 1960. Between 1952 and 1959 sixteen were transferred to various industrial establishments and some enjoyed there a few years’ lease of life. Last three OKi1s in the PKP service were withdrawn in 1966. One of them (OKi1-28, Borsig 5424/1904, KPEV Berlin 7560, then OKi1-14 and 74 104) has been preserved and can now be seen at the static display in the Railway Museum, Warsaw. Only one more engine of this type still exists. Union 1602/1908 (KPEV Hannover 7512, then DRG 74 231) was kept by DR after WWII and remained in service until 1968, when it was transferred to an industrial plant. Plinthed at a railway school premises in Erfurt in 1974, it was finally transferred to Museums-Eisenbahn Minden in 1999. This engine was fitted with a new boiler and sometimes runs with special trains.
Main technical data
- After WWI.
- Plus five or six more with no service numbers, written off in 1946 and 1950.
- Some sources give 116.4 sq.m.
List of vehicles can be found here.
References and acknowledgments
- TB vol. 2, LP;
- www.beitraege.lokomotive.de (database by Ingo Hütter);
- John Peakman (private communication);
- Monographic article by Ryszard Stankiewicz (SS vol. 146 and 147).