Pm3-5, erroneously designated Pm3-3 (Borsig 14926/1940) can be seen at the
Another picture taken on the same occasion…
… and yet another, showing tender details (after restoration; in PKP service tender streamlining was partially removed).
Side drawing of the 0310 in its original version, with ‘smaller’ streamlined cowling…
… and of Pm3 in PKP service, mid-1950s. Both drawings by M.Ćwikła from SK vol. 8/2001
Beautiful German Reko 03 1010 (Borsig 14921/1940) during steam locomotives parade in Berlin on August 21, 2005 (courtesy Tomek Drzewiecki, who happened to be in the right place at the right time).
In 2008, Halle-based 03 1010 participated in the Wolsztyn steam gala; photo taken on May 3.
Pm3-2, Toruń Główny depot, August 1961. Photo from my collection.
Some measures aimed at drag reduction were employed in locomotive design as early as in the beginning of the 20th century – good example is provided by Swedish class F of 1914, with conical smokebox door and V-shaped front cab wall, despite maximum speed of a mere 100 km/h. Such features may be attributed to aesthetic rather than aerodynamic considerations, but partial or full streamlining was another thing. Streamlined locomotives epitomized speed and power in late 1930s and were ordered by many railway authorities, often just from ambition (Polish Pm36 might be recalled here). In fact, full streamlining was shown to considerably reduce drag, mainly at highest speeds; weight increase and complicated maintenance were inevitable penalties.
German locomotive industry could not ignore such trends. Streamlining was used not only with record-breaking class 05 machines with 2300 mm drivers, but also class 60 1-2-1 passenger tender engines with maximum speed of 120 km/h (which gave them somehow awkward appearance). Most numerous and thus most important German streamlined engines were, however, those classed 0110 and 0310 – both derived from ‘normal’ express locomotives.
Experiments with streamlining 03s began in 1935 with 03 154 and 03 193, but class 0310, designed by Borsig, differed from its ancestor in having a three-cylinder single-expansion steam engine instead of a two-cylinder one. Tractive effort increase was marginal (from 11.1 to 11.4 tonnes), but three cylinders assured smoother running at high speed and reduced snaking. Boiler was almost identical, differing mainly in having 85 flues instead of 84, with corresponding small increase of evaporating surface. Prototypes, 03 1001 and 03 1002, were built by Borsig (serials 14711 and 14712) and delivered in late 1939. They differed in streamlining: 03 1001 had full cowling, while in 03 1002 cowling was slightly reduced, leaving drivers partly exposed. Tests were satisfactory and orders for 140 locomotives were placed with Borsig, Krupp and Krauss-Maffei. Had the war not broken out, these modern and fast machines would have probably become the symbol of DRG express trains; contrary to many record-breakers, often built in single examples and scarifying everything for speed, they were well-balanced and soundly designed engines. War soon caused initial orders to be cut down to sixty examples, built by Borsig (03 1001 through 1022), Krupp (03 1043 through 1060) and Krauss-Maffei (03 1073 through 1092), all remaining orders being cancelled. Last seven machines were delivered in early 1941. Full streamlining – as in 03 1001 – was fitted only to first seventeen locomotives built by Krauss-Maffei, the rest had large cutouts partly exposing drivers, as in 03 1002.
During the war there was a small, but persisting need for express passenger traffic and class 0310 remained in extensive use. In 1941, maximum speed was reduced from 150 to 140 km/h. As ease of maintenance took priority, lower parts of cowlings were removed during overhauls, leaving drivers, outer cylinders and running gear exposed. Most machines of this type were evacuated to Germany, but some fell into Soviet hands. Of these, nine were handed over to Polish authorities and re-numbered Pm3-1 to Pm3-9. First eight were restored in service, while broken-up Pm3-9 (ex 03 1047, Krupp 2104/1940) was never repaired, written off in 1956 and left for cannibalization. Moreover, in 1948, wrecked 03 1092 (Krauss-Maffei 15844/1940), damaged beyond repair by a direct bomb hit in Poznań in 1944, was formally entered in PKP rosters, only to be written off in 1948 and scrapped.
Eight serviceable locomotives, initially based in Poznań, were later moved to Iława, Bydgoszcz, Olsztyn and Toruń. They were used mainly on the Warsaw-Gdynia line, later also on other lines in north-eastern Poland. As few express engines were available immediately after the war, their service was very intensive. Pm3, nicknamed ‘Rekin’ (Shark), was a demanding machine, but crews praised running qualities and speed – despite poor condition of tracks, 130 km/h was often attained. As only eight examples remained in use, no dedicated modernization program was launched and in-service modifications were few. All Polish machines had ‘wartime’ streamlining, but folding tender upper covers were removed and trucks were left exposed. As with many German Einheitslokomotiven, problems with premature ageing of St47K steel, used for boilers, were soon encountered, but no reconstruction was considered justified. Withdrawal from service began in 1965 and, after a brief use as stationary boilers, seven examples were written off in 1967. The last one, Pm3-3 (ex 03 1005, Borsig 14916/1940), survived until May 1968.
After the war, DB were left with 26 examples and DR with 19. All machines operated by DB had their streamlining removed and, between 1957 and 1961, were fitted with new welded boilers. Last of them were withdrawn in 1966. DR also reboilered 16 of their 0310s with welded boilers in 1959; later all but one of them were converted to oil firing. Streamlining was removed. All German Reko engines were fitted with small, Witte-type smoke deflectors. They survived in service until 1980. The remaining five machines were used in the USSR, being classed TS (TC in Russian script), together with ex-DRG 03s. German service numbers were retained. Their service was short; last of them, TS-1018, was written off in April 1955. In fact the Soviets captured two machines more, but 03 1053 (NKPS designation T03.1053) was passed over to PKP in and 03 1006 (TS-1006) followed in 1953; they became Pm3-8 and Pm3-6, respectively.
Only three locomotives of this type still exist. It was intended to transfer Pm3-3 to the Railway Museum in Warsaw, but this machine had been scrapped before final decision was taken, so the choice instead fell on Pm3-5 (ex-DRG 03 1015, Borsig 14926/1940). Bureaucracy, however, left its trace and this machine still bears plates with the erroneous Pm3-3 service number. In Germany, 03 1010 (in DR service renumbered 03 0010-3, Borsig 14921/1940), is owned by DB and kept operational. 03 1090 (Krauss-Maffei 15842/1940, then DR 03 0090-5), plinthed in Stralsund in 1985, was transformed to Schwerin in 2001 and is owned by Mecklenburgische Eisenbahnfreunde Schwerin e.V. Both are, however, Reko versions with streamlining removed, externally much different from the original variant. The only other remaining member of the magnificent family of DRG streamlined engines is 05 001, preserved at the DB Museum in Nuremberg.
Main technical data
1) Includes one machine damaged beyond repair and not included in rosters and one machine not restored in service.
References and acknowledgments
- Monographic article by Tomasz Roszak in SK vol.8/2001;
- www.lokomotive.de (Ingo Hütter’s locomotive database).